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Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Presented by: International Firestop Council Firestop Inspection Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Presented by: International Firestop Council Firestop Inspection Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Presented by: International Firestop Council Firestop Inspection Training

2 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC The Curriculum 1.Containment In Construction 2.Code Requirements 3.How Firestopping Is Tested A.Penetrations B.Head of Wall C.Perimeter Barriers 4.The System Approach 5.Firestop Inspection 6.Firestop Contractor International Assoc. 7.Conclusion

3 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Containment In Construction Section 1

4 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC The Three Elements OF Life Safety DETECTION SUPPRESSIONCOMPARTMENTALIZATION (1)

5 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC

6 Where is firestop required? 1) Containment In Construction

7 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Through-Penetrations 1) Containment In Construction

8 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Membrane-Penetrations 1) Containment In Construction

9 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Construction Joints 1) Containment In Construction

10 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Perimeter Containment 1) Containment In Construction

11 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 1) Containment In Construction Why is Firestopping Required? To compartmentalize and prevent the spread of flame and smoke through a structure during a fire Life Safety - Specification of fire barriers and proper firestopping details - Proper installation - Diligent inspection Mandated by the Codes First Interstate Bank Building Los Angeles, 1987

12 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Other Notable Fires: August Moscow’s Ostankino Tower Cause of fire - Short circuit in wiring Automatic sprinklers failed May Beverly Hills Supper Club Cause of fire - Short circuit in wiring Smoke and toxic gases killed 165 Litigation completed in MGM Grand Hotel 84 Died – 679 Injured Sprinkler System Failure Other Notable Fires: May Taipei Office Building Fire started on 3rd Floor Spread and jumped to 26th Floor

13 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Code Requirements Section 2

14 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Regional Codes: Test Standards IBCUBCSBCBOCA Through Penetration ASTM E814 UL 1479 ASTM E814 UL 1479 ASTM E814 UL 1479 ASTM E814 UL 1479 Joints UL 2079 ANSI 2079 UL 2079 UBC AC-30 UL 2079 (ASTM E119 & ASTM E1399) UL 2079 (ASTM E119 & ASTM E1399) Perimeter Barriers ASTM E119 UL 263 (ISMA- ASTM E2307) ASTM E119 UL 263 (ISMA UBC 29-6) ASTM E119 UL 263 (ISMA- ASTM E2307) ASTM E119 UL 263 (ISMA- ASTM E2307) 2) Code Requirements

15 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 2) Code Requirements - IBC Through-Penetrations Sections & : Through-Penetrations –“Through-penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E814, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water and shall have: -an F rating of not less than the required fire resistance rating of the wall penetrated.” -an F rating and a T rating of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating of the floor penetrated.” Exceptions: 1) A T rating is not required for floor penetrations that are contained and located within a wall cavity

16 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Sections & : Membrane Penetrations –Code Summary: Membrane penetrations are firestopped the same as through penetrations –Exceptions: If the steel outlet box is less than 16 sq. in., provided that the openings do not exceed 100 sq. in. for any 100 sq. ft. Outlet boxes on opposite sides of the wall are separated by a horizontal distance of more than 24 inches. Membrane Penetrations 2) Code Requirements - IBC

17 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Section 712.1: Fire Resistive Joint Systems –“Joints installed in or between fire resistance rated assemblies shall be protected by an approved fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the assembly in which it is installed.” Section 712.3: Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL Joints 2) Code Requirements - IBC

18 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Section 712.4: Exterior Wall Assemblies –Code Summary: “… voids created at the intersection of exterior curtain wall assemblies and fire rated floor or floor ceiling assemblies, shall be sealed with an approved material. Such material shall be securely installed and capable of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E119 time-temperature fire conditions...” –Reality: Code language does not reference a test standard specific to perimeter joints because one does not officially exist Joints at exterior curtain wall assemblies currently evaluated to ASTM E2307 (new standard) Perimeter Barriers 2) Code Requirements - IBC

19 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Code provisions provide clear direction for inclusion information on the plans. – IBC Section , 2000 IBC – NBC Section and 703.2, 1999 NBC – UBC Section , and , 1997 UBC – SBC Section , 1999 SBC IBC Information on Construction Documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this codes, relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the building official. Submittals 2) Code Requirements - IBC

20 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Codes mandate through-penetrations and joints MUST NOT be concealed from view until inspected and approved: –NBC Section , 1999 NBC –UBC Section , 1997 UBC –SBC Section , 1999 SBC –IBC Section , 2000 IBC IBC Fire resistant penetrations - Protection of joints and penetrations in fire resistant rated assemblies shall not be concealed from view until inspected and approved. Inspection 2) Code Requirements - IBC

21 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC How Firestopping is Tested Section 3

22 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Omega Point Laboratories Factory Mutual Standards Laboratories Intertek (Warnock Hersey) Listings Third Party Testing Labs American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) Labs Test to Standards

23 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 3 Parts of a UL System: 1) Fire-Rated Wall or Floor 2) Penetrating Item(s) (If any) 3) Firestop Fill Material(s) 3) How Firestopping is Tested

24 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Through-Penetration Test Before

25 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC ASTM E119 TIME - TEMPERATURE CURVE

26 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Through-Penetration Test During

27 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Through-Penetration Test After

28 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Hose Stream Test

29 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Example of Successful Testing Construction - 4” PVC Through Drywall Firestopping - Intumescent Device & Sealant BeforeAfter

30 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Main Criteria: –F-Rating: Prohibits flame passage through the system for the duration of the fire test. –T-Rating: Max. temp. rise of 325 °F above ambient on the non-fireside –L-Rating: Amount of air leakage –Hose Stream Performance Through-Penetration Systems

31 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Head of Wall Joint Fire Resistive Joint Testing Floor to Floor Joint

32 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC ASTM E1399: Cyclic Movement and Measuring Min. & Max. Joint Widths of Architectural Joint Systems Cycling Requirements ClassMovementMin. CyclesFrequency IThermal5001 cycle / min. IIWind Sway50010 cycle / min. IIISeismic10030 cycle / min. IVCombined cycle / min.&40010 cycle / min

33 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Before

34 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC After Fire Exposure

35 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Hosestream

36 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Hosestream Failure

37 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC PATHS OF FIRE PROPAGATION Perimeter Barrier Testing

38 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Intermediate Scale Multi-story Test Apparatus (ISMA) Window Burner Room Burner

39 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Room burner from outside

40 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC After room burner burns for 5 minutes, the window burner is ignited.

41 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Perimeter Barrier Testing Perimeter barrier systems are unique –Mineral wool and sealant of the joint area alone is usually not sufficient Exceptions – Concrete, granite panels –Most approved curtain wall designs require protection of the spandrel area in addition to the joint area –Most glass and aluminum curtain wall perimeter barrier designs require some type of mechanical additions to meet fire test standards. –Many curtain walls are customized, therefore requiring an Engineering Judgment

42 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Alternate Enclosure Duct Testing UL 1978 – Standard for Grease Ductwork UL 263 (ASTM E119) and ISO 6944–1985 Standard for Air/Ventilation Ductwork UL 1479 (ASTM E814) Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops

43 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC UL 1978 – Standard for Grease Ducts 500°F Conditioning – ~4 Hours Until Duct Comes to Equilibrium Simulates Continuous Operation 2000°F for 30 Minutes Simulates Transient Grease Fire Temperature Criteria Outside of Wrap to Remain Below 250°F Plus Ambient

44 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Alternate Enclosure Duct Testing

45 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC The System Approach Section 4

46 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC UL ApprovedNo Such Thing (Only AHJ approves products/systems UL ClassifiedLab has used the country requirements to evaluate the product for specific hazards or properties UL ListedPasses the standard test and is in the lab’s directory 4) The System Approach

47 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Example 1: UL Listed - Through Penetration System C-AJ ) The System Approach Navigating UL

48 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: THROUGH PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEMS (XHEZ) First Alpha Character – signifies what is being penetrated F=Floors W=Walls C=Walls and Floors Combination – Floor or Wall C-AJ ) The System Approach

49 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: THROUGH PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEMS (XHEZ) Following Alpha Character(s) – wall or floor construction type A=Concrete floors  5 inch thick B=Concrete floors  5 inch thick C=Framed floors D=Steel decks in marine vessels E-I =Reserved for future use J=Concrete or masonry walls  8 inch thick K=Concrete or masonry walls  8 inch thick L=Framed walls M=Bulkheads in marine vessels N-Z =Reserved for future use C-AJ-1079 Construction Type of Floor or Wall 4) The System Approach

50 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: THROUGH PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEMS (XHEZ) Numeric Component – first digit identifies the type of penetrant, next three are sequential system numbering = No Penetrant = Metallic pipe, conduit or tubing = Nonmetallic pipe, conduit or tubing = Electrical cables = Cable trays with electrical cables = Insulated pipes = Busways = HVAC ducts = Mixed multiple penetrations = Reserved for future use C-AJ-1079 Individual System Number C-AJ-1079 Penetrant Type 4) The System Approach

51 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC HW-D-0034 Example 2: UL System - Joints Navigating UL 4) The System Approach

52 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: JOINT SYSTEMS (XHBN) First Two Alpha Characters – identify the type of joint system FF=Floor-to-Floor WW=Wall-to-Wall FW=Floor-to-Wall HW=Head-of-Wall HW-D-0034 Barriers That Form The Joint 4) The System Approach

53 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: JOINT SYSTEMS (XHBN) Next Alpha Character – identifies the movement capabilities of the system D= Dynamic (movement capabilities) S= Static (no movement capabilities) HW-D-0034 Movement: Static or Dynamic? 4) The System Approach

54 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Navigating UL: JOINT SYSTEMS (XHBN) Numeric Component – first digit identifies the width of the joint system, next three are sequential system numbering = joint  2 inch = joint  2 inch  6 inch = joint  6 inch  12 inch = joint  12 inch  24 inch = joint  24 inch HW-D-0034 Individual System Number HW-D-0034 Joint Width 4) The System Approach

55 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC W-L-5130 C-AJ-7009 F-C ) The System Approach

56 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 4) The System Approach What type of building assembly is requiring firestopping? –Floor or Wall What type of material is the building assembly –Concrete, CMU, Gypsum, Wood Frame What is the penetrating item(s)? –Metallic, Nonmetallic, Cables, Insulated, Construction Joints, etc. What are the specific descriptions regarding the penetrants? –Diameter, quantity, type of plastic, type & thickness of insulation, etc. What is the hourly rating you are looking for? –F Rating, T Rating Are there any special considerations? –Movement, Environmental exposure Company ABC – SuperDuper Sealant

57 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Engineering Judgments : What are they? When are they acceptable? When are they not appropriate? What are the guidelines? 4) The System Approach

58 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC

59 4) The System Approach When are they acceptable? –When tested systems do not exist. –When modifying the application is unrealistic. –When existing test data supports the interpolation. –When the author has experience with and knowledge of the conditions. –When an illustration is provided to aid in installation.

60 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Sources of Engineering Judgements Manufacturer Third party labs (UL) Fire Protection Engineer Professional Engineer Must be based on sound engineering practice and knowledge of both field application and capabilities of system components 4) The System Approach

61 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC –According to the International Firestop Council “listed firestop systems can be broadened within the context of their originally tested and rated conditions through the careful and restricted application of accepted engineering principles and fire protection testing guidelines.” 4) The System Approach

62 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Firestop Inspection Section 5

63 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 5) Firestop Inspection Consider all other, life-safety building materials required by code...

64 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC No Licensed Contractors Usually Installed by Trades Firestop Considered Beneath Them Most Users are Untrained Firestopping in the Real World 5) Firestop Inspection

65 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 1.Rarely installed correctly 2.Install the same way everywhere The RED RING Syndrome 5) Firestop Inspection

66 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Annular Space 5) Firestop Inspection

67 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 1. Centered2. Off-Centered 3. Point Contact 4. Continuous Point Contact

68 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC TOP VIEWSIDE VIEW Crown Bead at Point Contact 5) Firestop Inspection

69 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Penetrating Item 5) Firestop Inspection Profile of Firestop Sealant Poor Sealant Footprint

70 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 5) Firestop Inspection Profile of Firestop Sealant Improved Sealant Footprint Penetrating Item

71 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Duct Considerations: Flat Sides > 24” Must Be Anchored Anchors Into Duct Only, Not Wall Framing Gauge Equal to (or Heavier) Than Duct Inspect Sealant Before Angle 5) Firestop Inspection

72 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Flat Sides Braced With Angle

73 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Sprinkler Pipe Considerations

74 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC NFPA 13 Annular Space Limitations –If Pipe < 3.5” then annular = 1” –If pipe > 3.5” then annular = 2” –Annular must be 360 degrees Pipe Movement –Seismic Movement –Water-Hammer from Testing Metallic Sprinkler Pipe Considerations 5) Firestop Inspection

75 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 5) Firestop Inspection - Electrical Boxes

76 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Electrical Boxes: You are allowed to have unprotected outlet boxes in a wall if there is no more than 100 sq. inches of total openings per 100 sq. feet of wall. Boxes must have at least a 24 inch horizontal separation. Putty pads have been tested to maintain the ASTM E-119 test standard, with boxes installed less than 24” apart, as long as boxes are not back to back. 5) Firestop Inspection

77 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC

78 Inspecting Firestop for Compliance Video

79 Visual Inspection Quiz What’s wrong with these installs? Dissimilar products in the same opening is not allowed

80 Visual Inspection Quiz What’s wrong with these installs? Drywall mud is never an acceptable firestop material Collar should be flush with ceiling surface

81 Visual Inspection Quiz What’s wrong with this install? Head of wall joint is firestopped, but penetrations are not Is there firestopping behind the drywall mud? Penetrant opening at top of wall must be firestopped with same product as head of wall

82 Visual Inspection Quiz What’s wrong with these installs? Visually … Nothing Does number and type of wrap strip match design? Is there sealant in the void? Does thickness and overlap of coating match design? What type and amount of backing material is behind coating?

83 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC The Firestop Pre-Construction Meeting Review Design Drawings Submittals Obtain Pre-Approved Engineering Judgments Schedule Work and Inspections 5) Firestop Inspection

84 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Build a Mock-Up 5) Firestop Inspection

85 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Simplifying the Inspection Process Installation Stickers Placed next to each penetration firestop or periodically along a joint firestop Should meet FCIA and/or architectural specifications

86 Firestop Contractors International Association  Contractors specializing in installation of firestop systems  Understand firestopping requirements across all areas of construction  Committed to providing consistent, high-quality installations  Active in the advancement of the firestopping industry

87 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Factory Mutual FM 4991 is the first “Approval of People”. Factory Mutual FM 4991 is the first “Approval of People”.  Min. 2 years in firestop installation business  Designated Responsible Individual (DRI) is formally tested by FM, retest every 3 years  FCIA Manual of Practice and FM 4991  Selection of Firestop Systems and Assemblies  Documented and archived record keeping system for all installations  Must have an approved Quality Control Manual  Firestop Systems and Assemblies  Training 6) FCIA – FM 4991 Approved Contractor

88 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Why use an FCIA / FM4991 Contractor?  Peace of Mind  A Job Well Done  Professionalism  Public Safety 6) FCIA

89 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Frequently Asked Questions? 7) Conclusion

90 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC 7) Conclusion - Frequently Asked Questions? WHAT IS THE FIRE RATING FOR YOUR CAULK? Firestopping products do not have a fire rating (e.g. 1” of caulk does not equate to a 1 hr rating, etc.) The assembly in which it is installed has the fire rating The thousands of different firestop systems each detailing the required parameters and building components

91 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC ARE ALL FIRESTOP SEALANTS EQUAL? NO. Each manufacturer’s material has its own unique properties and functions when applied in a firestop system design. Similar firestop products cannot be used interchangeably Each firestop system must be judged on its own merits and within the parameters of each manufacturer’s system specific design 7) Conclusion - Frequently Asked Questions?

92 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC IS MINERAL WOOL 1-HOUR RATED? NO. Mineral wool is a component of many firestop systems but is normally used in conjunction with sealants or coatings Mineral wool alone does not pass the hose stream test Mineral wool alone will not provide a smoke seal 7) Conclusion - Frequently Asked Questions?

93 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Final Thoughts 7) Conclusion

94 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC You are the last line of defense! We need your help to ensure: –The code is enforced –Contractors do the job per specifications –Owner gets what is being paid for Firestopping is only installed to the level of knowledge of the AHJ

95 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Product Information - manufacturer’s websites International Firestop Council (IFC) - Firestop Contractors International Association (FCIA) -www.fcia.org IFC pocket Firestopping Inspection Manual IFC Inspection Guidelines for Through- Penetration and Fire Resistive Joint Systems in Fire Resistance Rated Construction Available Resources

96 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC About the IFC The International Firestop Council is a not-for-profit association of manufacturers, distributors and installers of fire protective materials and systems. IFC's mission is to promote the technology of fire containment in modern building construction through research, education and development of safety standards and code provisions. Website

97 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Available educational seminars on our website include….. Firestop 101 – An introduction to firestopping Perimeter Curtain Wall Fire Protection Firestop System Selection Flexible Duct Wrap Systems Fire Protection of Construction Joints

98 Saving Lives and Property Through Fire and Smoke Containment ©2004 IFC Thank You


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