Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Closed Cycle Cooling Systems (for MICE) Tom Bradshaw Rutherford Appleton Laboratory MICE Video conference 24 th March 2004."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Closed Cycle Cooling Systems (for MICE) Tom Bradshaw Rutherford Appleton Laboratory MICE Video conference 24 th March 2004
Introduction There are alternatives to standard “wet” cryogenics that use closed cycle cryocoolers. I was asked to give a short talk on what are cryocoolers, how do they work and their benefits. There are many types of closed cycle coolers – for MICE we can concentrate on two: Gifford McMahon or GM cryocooler Pulse tube refrigerator
Cryocoolers Cryocoolers are closed cycle cooling systems that generally only require electrical input power to produce refrigeration. Cold Head Compressor Transfer lines Cold head 1 st stage 2 nd stage 3 rd stage Rotary valve Phigh Plow
How do they work ? Displacer/Regenerator can move inside the cold head and pushes the gas from one end to the other. Regenerator is a porous high heat capacity material. Compressor 10 - 20 bar typical Rotary Valve Displacer/Regenerator Expansion Space
How do they work? Cool Take a piston in a tube, sealed at one end and containing a gas – if a gas is expanded it cools When the gas is compressed it heats up. The compressor compresses the gas and removes heat of compression. Rotary valve alternately connects the cold cold head to the high and low sides of the compressor
How do they work? Regenerator /displacer – this shuttles the gas from one end of the cold head to the other so that when the gas is expanded it is always at the cold end. Compressor - The helium is circulated through the compressor where it is compressed and the heat of compression is removed. The regenerator acts as a “cold store”. After the gas is expanded it passes through the regenerator – exchanges the “cold” with the regenerator material and passes back to the warm end. On the other half of the cycle as the gas goes towards the cold end it is pre-cooled by the regenerator. The rotary valve switches the cold head from high pressure feed to low pressure
Regenerator Modern crycoolers can reach low temperatures because of the work done on regenerators. The regenerator is the key component that allows low temperatures to be attained. All low temperature crycoolers take advantage of magnetic transitions which give rise to specific heat anomalies around 4K Er 3 Ni is an example.
Cryocoolers Cryocoolers can be purchased to operate around 4K They typically have two or more stages of cooling allowing for interception of heat leaks The cooling at the intermediate stages is usually many Watts From the Sumitomo web page 4K Cryocoolers Specification Chart ModelSRDK-408DSRDK-415DSRDK-408DSRDK-415D 1 st Stage Capacity Watts @ 50Hz31W @ 40K35W @ 50K Watts @ 60Hz37W @ 40K45W @ 50K 2 nd Stage Capacity 1.0W @ 4.2K1.5W @ 4.2K Lowest Temperature 2 nd Stage<3.5K Cooldown Time 2 nd Stage<60min. (4.2K)
Cryocoolers Cryocoolers can be purchased to operate around 4K They typically have two or more stages of cooling allowing for interception of heat leaks The cooling at the intermediate stages is usually many Watts From the Sumitomo web page
Cryocoolers - examples Cryocoolers are commonly used to cool small to medium sized magnets. They are used in magnetic resonance imaging magnets (MRI) in “zero boil-off” systems where the cryocooler is used to re-condense helium back into the bath About time they were used in nuclear physics…. A 4K Cold head from the Sumitomo web page Cryogenic (UK) supply magnets up to 15T Cooled with closed cycle coolers – from Cryogenic web page
Examples Cryogenics section is building the low temperature cryostat at the focal plane of the telescope. Cryocooler is shown in red This is a “special” three stage ordered from Sumitomo 1 st stage33W @ 68K 2 nd Stage8W @ 13.7K 3 rd Stage1W @ 4.2K ALMA Atacama Large Millimetre Array
ALMA Cryocooler Design requires some heavy engineering on the thermal straps
What do we require ? Need refrigeration for: Decay Solenoid near to ISIS ring Requires supercritical helium MICE magnets Require two – phase helium Require shield cooling at 14K Hydrogen absorbers Requires helium flow at 14K Detectors Requires temperatures < 10K Actual load at 4K is quite small …..
Magnets These are estimates on the likely refrigeration requirements for the MICE system. Shows that we need a large TCF50 or equivalent refrigerator.
Relative cost exercise Cryocooler cost25k£ CoilHeat load at 4KCoolersCost k£ Coupler A1.6125 Coupler B1.6125 Focus magnets A1.7250 Focus magnet B1.7250 Focus magnets C1.7250 Detector Magnet A1.44100 Detector Magnet B1.44100 Detectors4100 Totals11.120500 To provide same level of refrigeration with a wet system would cost £1.4M - £1.7M (Both choices will still require a refrigerator for the decay solenoid £324k)
Absorber The absorber is a special case as refrigeration is required at 12K for the hydrogen system. The heat load on the absorber is very low so the requirement can be met from the intermediate stage of a crycoooler. The cryocooler developed for ALMA has cooling stages at 90K, 12K and 4K. We can use a helium flow from the compressor of the cryocooler – the only problem here is that the heat exchanger in the absorber will have to withstand 40bar. If this is not possible then an extra small compressor will have to be used.
Magnets and Detectors Magnets Magnets aren’t a particular problem as this is a well known technology Design considerations: Use of High Tc superconducting leads Heat intercepts off the intermediate stages Detectors These are a prime candidate for the use of cryocoolers and IC are already looking at designs incorporating this technology Issues Cool-down time for many of the magnets will be long and we may have to incorporate nitrogen pre-cooling loops. Testing is easier at the host institution and more thorough characterisation will be possible The implementation will bring considerable cost savings – in most configurations most of the power is used to cool transfer lines
Key Points a) Staging of MICE will mean that we will have large cryogenic plant standing idle for long periods. b) Cost - At the present the funding profile for MICE in the UK is not certain. There will be a large cost associated with the purchase of the cryogenic system. c) Testing - If cryocoolers are used then each of the MICE "modules" can be tested independently and verified before shipping to RAL and integration. For example the detector group are keen on the idea. d) Design - The cryocoolers can provide intermediate stages of cooling at low temperatures e.g. a three stage cooler could provide 3.8K, 14K and 90K. Can use high Tc current leads to minimise heat loads. e) May be a pre-cooling issue – we will need to cool down the magnets in a day or two.
Summary Proposal: RAL provide only refrigeration for the decay solenoid Providers of MICE modules should provide their own refrigeration in the form of closed cycle cooling systems RAL will provide facilities for pre-cooling magnets to 80K via Nitrogen cooling