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Introductions Mark Steinbicker, Flight Standards Service,

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0 Federal Aviation Administration Required Navigation Performance Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required (RNP SAAAR) Presentation to: Flight Standards IVT Names: Mark Steinbicker, AFS-410 Barry Miller, AIR-130 Tim Miller, ASAA CMO Robert Davis, AFS-220 Date: March 1, 2006

1 Introductions Mark Steinbicker, Flight Standards Service,
AFS-410, Flight Operations Branch Barry Miller, Aircraft Certification Service, AIR-130, Avionics Systems Branch Tim Miller, Flight Standards Service, Supervisory Principal Operations Inspector, ASAA CMO Robert Davis, Flight Standards Service, AFS-220, Air Carrier Operations Branch

2 Objectives of Presentation
Promote a general understanding of Area Navigation (RNAV), RNP, and RNP SAAAR concepts Raise awareness of “public” RNP SAAAR instrument approach procedures (IAPs) published in accordance with 14 CFR Part 97 Discuss guidance materials and the approval process for RNP SAAAR Seek feedback from field personnel in the interest of improving guidance and processes for RNP SAAAR Provide points of contact in headquarters for assistance Serve as reference material after this IVT

3 Overview of Presentation
Agenda Video on Performance-Based Navigation What? Terminology- RNAV, RNP, and RNP SAAAR Why? RNP SAAAR Benefits How? RNP SAAAR Procedure Development Criteria and Guidance Material Features of RNP SAAAR Procedure Design Advisory Circular (AC) APPROVAL GUIDANCE FOR RNP PROCEDURES WITH SAAAR Development of AC Aircraft Qualification Operator Qualification AC Appendices 1 through 3 Questions or Comments Break

4 Overview of Presentation (continued)
AC Appendices 4 through 7 Inspector Guidance and Mechanisms for RNP SAAAR Authorizations Summary Key Concepts Points of Contact Location of Guidance Follow-on DVD Questions or Comments

5 You are encouraged to ask questions and provide comments!
Agenda Presentation Questions or Comments Break Presentation (continued) Summary Questions or Comments You are encouraged to ask questions and provide comments!

6 Video on Performance-Based Navigation (approximately 13 minutes in length)

7 What? Terminology: Area Navigation (RNAV)
RNAV is a method of navigation that enables aircraft to fly on any desired flight path within the coverage of referenced NAVAIDS or within the limits of the capability of self-contained systems, or a combination of these capabilities Routes and procedures using RNAV provide improved access and flexibility through point-to-point navigation and are not restricted to the location of ground-based NAVAIDs The overall safety of the RNAV operation is achieved through a combined use of aircraft navigation accuracy, air traffic control intervention (via radar monitoring, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS), multilateration, communications) and/or route separation

8 Terminology (continued): Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
RNP is RNAV with on-board navigation monitoring and alerting RNP is a statement of navigation performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace A critical component of RNP is the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation performance, and to identify for the pilot whether the operational requirement is, or is not being met during an operation This on-board monitoring and alerting capability therefore allows a lessened reliance on air traffic control intervention (via radar monitoring, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS), multilateration, communications), and/or route separation to achieve the overall safety of the operation RNP capability of the aircraft is a major component in determining the separation criteria to ensure that the overall containment of the operation is met

9 Terminology (continued): RNP Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required (SAAAR)
RNP SAAAR is the first public implementation of RNP in the National Airspace System Operators must be authorized to fly this type of procedure Authorization process is similar to that used for ILS Cat II/III Procedures are charted with title of “RNAV (RNP) RWY XX” and words “SPECIAL AIRCRAFT & AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED” below minima box Some “Special” RNP SAAAR procedures currently exist and may be developed in the future (different process and criteria from Part 97) Operations into foreign airspace/facilities using “RNP-like procedures” may require RNP SAAAR authorizations

10 Why? Benefits of RNP SAAAR
Provide better access through lower minimums to runways with terrain/obstacles Increase use of under-utilized runways (parallel, converging, standalone) Improve backup procedures during ILS outages De-conflict airspace and traffic flows (e.g., converging runways, adjacent procedures) through narrower and curved segments Improve safety by eliminating circling maneuvers and providing lateral and vertical flight guidance to the runway

11 How? FAA Guidance for RNP SAAAR Procedures
Procedure Development Criteria- FAA Order UNITED STATES STANDARD FOR REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) APPROACH PROCEDURES WITH SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED (SAAAR) Airworthiness and Operational Approval- FAA AC APPROVAL GUIDANCE FOR RNP PROCEDURES WITH SAAAR Note: International procedure design criteria for RNP with “Authorization Required” will be harmonized with FAA Order

12 RNP SAAAR Procedure Design Features per Order 8260.52
Narrow Segments Lateral Width of 2 X RNP with no secondary buffers at RNP 0.3 nm or less Curved Segments (optional) (Radius-to-fix legs) Performance-Based Vertical Criteria (Vertical Error Budget) RF Segments Guided Missed Approaches (optional) (RNP 1.0 or less) VEB & Missed Approach

Developed through coordination with aviation industry via Performance-Based Aviation Operations Rulemaking Committee (PARC) Designed to set a common standard for Operations and Airworthiness to be in sync with Procedure Design criteria in FAA Order Authorizations issued under the provisions of AC may require operational mitigations to satisfy safety standards

14 Guidance for Approvals per AC 90-101
Aircraft Qualification Performance Requirements Lateral and vertical accuracy Airspace containment- system monitoring and alerting Position Updating GPS required during initial implementation DME/DME/IRU where appropriate Path Definition and Flight Planning Path Steering Performance Displays, Alerting, and Annunciations Design Assurance Navigation Database

15 Guidance for Approvals per AC 90-101 (continued)
Operator Qualification Operator requests approval from FAA Confirmation of aircraft qualification Case #1- Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) states compliance with AC -or- Case #2- No statement of compliance in the AFM, then the aircraft Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and FAA determine airworthiness -and- Compliance with crew procedures and training specified in AC -then, if satisfactory- FAA issues interim authorization and then, following demonstration period (credit may be given to experienced operators), final authorization

16 Appendix 1- RNP SAAAR Instrument Approach Procedures
Procedure design criteria defined in FAA Order Characteristics of RNP SAAAR procedures: Allowance for multiple lines of minima at 0.3 nm and down to 0.1 nm “RNP 0.3” line of minima will always be developed, if obstacles and terrain allow RNP values less than 0.3 nm generally require use of more automation RF legs an option throughout procedure and identified on chart Missed approach procedure with RNP less than 1.0 nm Non-standard approach speeds and/or climb gradients Initial charting conventions established but work still ongoing

17 Appendix 1- RNP SAAAR Instrument Approach Procedures (continued)
Characteristics of RNP SAAAR procedures (continued): Temperature Limits Restrictions charted as with Baro-VNAV (LNAV/VNAV) Limits do not apply to aircraft with approved temperature-compensating systems Aircraft Size Single standard (“large” aircraft) will be used for initial designs to encourage participation and reduce complexity Design to “small” aircraft criteria to achieve lower minimums Example RNP SAAAR charts in AC FAA National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) Products of commercial vendors may vary

18 Appendix 2- Aircraft Qualification
Primary intent  provide guidance to OEMs & avionics vendors In sync with RNP SAAAR procedure design criteria and operations criteria Content: Introduction  No need for new airworthiness project Performance & Functional Requirements RNP SAAAR General Requirements Examples: Display of deviation Altimeter crosscheck Requirements for RNP SAAAR IAPs with RF Legs Requirements for using lines of minima less than RNP 0.3 Requirements for IAPs with a missed approach RNP less than 1.0

19 Appendix 3- Navigation Data Validation Program
Reduced obstacle clearance adds to importance of accurate data Sections: Data Management Process Responsible manager Process documented  configuration control Initial Data Validation Data Updates Data Suppliers AC ACCEPTANCE OF DATA PROCESSES AND ASSOCIATED NAVIGATION DATABASES RTCA DO-200A STANDARDS FOR PROCESSING AERONAUTICAL DATA Aircraft Modifications (for example, software changes)

20 Questions or Comments

21 Please return in 15 minutes
BREAK Please return in 15 minutes

22 Appendix 4- Operational Considerations
General In addition to the guidance of this appendix, the operator must continue to ensure they comply with the general RNAV operating requirements; checking Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS), availability of Navigational Aids (NAVAID), airworthiness of aircraft systems, and aircrew qualification Preflight Considerations Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Autopilot and Flight Director (as required by RNP value, RF legs, AFM) Dispatch RNP Assessment (for example, predictive RAIM) NAVAID Exclusion Navigation Database Currency

23 Appendix 4- Operational Considerations (continued)
In-Flight Considerations Modification of Flight Plan Required List of Equipment RNP Management Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) Updating Radio Updating (reversionary mode) Approach Procedure Confirmation Track Deviation Monitoring System Crosscheck Procedure with RF Legs Temperature Compensation

24 Appendix 4- Operational Considerations (continued)
In-Flight Considerations (continued) Altimeter Setting (emphasis on timely and accurate setting) Altimeter Crosscheck Non-Standard Climb Gradient (greater than 200 feet per nm) Engine-Out Procedures (see FAA Notice ) Go-Around or Missed Approach Missed approach procedures that require RNP 1.0 Missed approach procedures that require less than RNP 1.0 Contingency Procedures Failure while En Route Failure while on Approach These considerations lead to the development of operational procedures that, in turn, lead to training requirements

25 Appendix 5- Training Individuals must have completed the appropriate ground and flight training segments before engaging in RNP SAAAR operations Operators must provide training and ensure the following key personnel are qualified to conduct RNP SAAAR operations Flight crewmembers Dispatchers/Flight Followers

26 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
14 CFR Part 119 Qualification Training RNP SAAAR training and qualifications should be incorporated into the operator’s: Initial Transition Upgrade Recurrent Differences Credit for previous RNP training (e.g., Special RNP IAPs), must receive specific authorization from POI

27 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Dispatcher/Flight Follower Training Different types of RNP SAAAR procedures RNP SAAAR OpSpec authorizations The importance of specific navigation equipment RNP SAAAR regulatory requirements and procedures MEL requirements and operating provisions Aircraft navigation performance capabilities Navigation signal availability (e.g., GPS Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)/predictive RNP capability tool) Evaluation - Demonstrate knowledge of RNP SAAAR procedures

28 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Flight Crew Training Ground Training Segment Concepts of RNP SAAAR systems operation and limitations General knowledge and operational application of RNP SAAAR instrument approach procedures Definitions Differences between RNAV and RNP SAAAR Types of RNP SAAAR approach procedures authorized Programming and display of RNP and aircraft specific displays Enable and disable the navigation updating modes RNP values appropriate for different phases of flight Use of GPS RAIM (or equivalent) forecasts and the effects of RAIM

29 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Ground Training Segment (continued) When and how to terminate RNP navigation FMC database effective dates Different components that contribute to the total system error and their characteristics Temperature compensation RNP SAAAR ATC Communication and Coordination RNP SAAAR Equipment Components, Controls, Displays, and Alerts AFM Information, Limitations, and Operating Procedures MEL operating provisions

30 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Flight Training Segment Proper execution of RNP SAAAR procedures Procedures for verifying that each pilot’s altimeter has the current setting before beginning the final approach of an RNP SAAAR procedure Use of aircraft RADAR, TAWS, and any other avionics systems used to support the flight crew’s track monitoring and weather and obstacle avoidance Effect of wind on aircraft performance during RNP SAAAR procedures and the need to positively remain within RNP containment area

31 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Flight Training Segment (continued) The effect of groundspeed while conducting RNP SAAAR procedures and bank angle restrictions that may impact the ability to remain on the course centerline RNP and the appropriate approach minima line on an approved published RNP SAAAR procedure Concise and complete flight crew briefings Alerts that may occur from improper RNP values for a desired segment of an RNP SAAAR procedure Performance requirements to couple the autopilot/flight director to the navigation system’s lateral guidance on RNP SAAAR procedures requiring an RNP of less than RNP 0.3

32 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Flight Training Segment (continued) Potentially detrimental effect of reducing the flap setting, reducing the bank angle or increasing airspeeds may have on the ability to comply with an RNP SAAAR procedure Importance of aircraft configuration Bank angle restrictions or limitations Events that trigger a missed approach Programming and operating the FMC, autopilot, autothrottles/autothrust, RADAR, GPS, Inertial Navigation System (INS), Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS), and TAWS in support of RNP SAAAR procedures

33 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Flight Training Segment (continued) Handling of Take-Off/Go-Around (TOGA) while in a turn Monitoring of Flight Technical Error (FTE) and related go-around operation Handling of loss of GPS input during a procedure Flight crew contingency procedures for a loss of RNP capability during a missed approach

34 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Evaluation Module The operator must evaluate the individual’s knowledge of RNP SAAAR procedures Include a thorough evaluation of pilot procedures and specific aircraft performance requirements for RNP SAAAR operations and the following: Each pilot must complete two RNP approach procedures that employ the unique SAAAR characteristics of the operator’s approved procedures (i.e., RF legs, RNP missed). One procedure must culminate in a transition to landing One procedure must culminate in execution of an RNP missed approach procedure

35 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Evaluation Module (continued) Qualification by a RNP SAAAR qualified check airman (or AQP instructor evaluator) using an approved simulator, level 6/7 training device or aircraft and/or Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)/Line Oriented Evaluation (LOE). LOFT/LOE programs using an approved simulator that incorporates RNP operations that employ the unique SAAAR characteristics (i.e., RF legs, RNP missed) of the operator’s approved procedures

36 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Evaluation Module (continued) Demonstrate knowledge and skill in the following elements: Use of any RNP SAAAR limits/minimums that may impact various RNP SAAAR approaches Application of radio-updating procedures, such as enabling and disabling ground-based radio updating of the Flight Management Computer (FMC) Ability to monitor the actual lateral and vertical flight paths relative to programmed flight path

37 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Evaluation Module (continued) Ability to evaluate and apply a RAIM forecast Proper setup of the FMC, the weather RADAR, Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS), and moving map Flight crew briefings and checklists for RNP SAAAR operations with emphasis on Crew Resource Management (CRM) Use of RNP SAAAR approach plates, briefing cards, and checklists Knowledge of and skill required to perform an RNP SAAAR missed approach procedure Speed control Ability to complete a stable RNP SAAAR approach

38 Appendix 5- Training (continued)
Recurrent Training Incorporate recurrent RNP SAAAR training that employs the unique SAAAR characteristics A minimum of two RNP SAAAR approaches must be flown by each pilot One culminating in a landing One culminating in a missed approach

39 Appendix 6- RNP Monitoring Program
The operator must have an RNP monitoring program to ensure continued compliance with the guidance and to identify any negative trends in performance During the interim approval, (the first 90 days and 100 approaches) the operator must submit a report to its Certificate-Holding District Office (CHDO) or Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) every 30 days After the interim period, the operator must continue to collect and periodically review this data to identify potential safety concerns, and maintain summaries of the data

40 Appendix 6- RNP Monitoring Program (continued)
The program must address the following information: Total number of RNP SAAAR procedures conducted Number of satisfactory approaches by aircraft/system Reasons for unsatisfactory approaches, such as: “UNABLE REQ NAV PERF”, “NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD”, or other RNP messages during approaches Excessive lateral or vertical deviation TAWS warnings Autopilot system disconnect (when otherwise required) Navigation data errors Pilot reports of any anomaly Crew comments

41 Appendix 7- Approval Checklist/Application Contents
The package should include, as a minimum, the following items: Aircraft qualification documentation List of aircraft (make, model, and series) and aircraft equipment to be used, including version of FMS software installed Operating procedures and practices Navigation Data Validation Program Flight crew training programs Simulator training Dispatcher/flight follower training Operations manuals and checklists Maintenance practices and requirements

42 Appendix 7- Approval Checklist/Application Contents (continued)
RNP SAAAR approach monitoring program MEL- The operator should submit revisions to the MEL necessary for the conduct of RNP SAAAR operations Validation test plan Proposed language, e.g., non-standard Operations Specifications (OpSpecs)/Management Specifications (MSpecs)/Letter Of Authorization (LOA), that identifies any conditions or limitations necessary or required for the authorization Ability to fly an RF leg Ability to fly a missed approach requiring RNP less than 1.0

43 Inspector Guidance and Mechanisms for RNP SAAAR Authorizations
FAA Notice – OpSpec C052 can not be used for RNP SAAAR Part 121/135 OpSpecs C384: non-standard requiring AFS-200 and AFS-400 approval Part 129 OpSpecs C084: must have CAA authorization for that country (AFS-50) Part 91 Subpart K Mspecs C384: non-standard Handbook Bulletins – In development International RNP Procedures Majority of procedures will be designed with criteria harmonized with FAA Order and designated as “Authorization Required” or “AR” Limited number of “RNP” procedures (non-harmonized) that require similar performance to RNP SAAAR Both types require authorization

44 Summary RNP SAAAR criteria and guidance documents, developed in coordination with industry, provide common standards in these areas: Procedure Design Airworthiness Operational Procedures and Training Identification of appropriate operational procedures and associated training is important No intention for field inspectors to qualify aircraft for RNP SAAAR, rather this function is accomplished by specific OEM and FAA representatives (several aircraft models and operators are currently being reviewed)

45 Summary (continued) AFS-400, AIR-130, and AFS-200 personnel are ready to assist with applications Points of Contact ( and phone numbers available in FAA Directory) Mark Steinbicker, AFS-410 Vincent Chirasello, AFS-410 Barry Miller, AIR-130 Bruce DeCleene, AIR-130 Robert Davis, AFS-220 Location of Guidance Follow-on DVD Presentation Video on Performance-Based Navigation AC

46 Questions or Comments

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