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Ingrid Markovic, Ph.D., Biologist

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Presentation on theme: "Ingrid Markovic, Ph.D., Biologist"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control Issues in Production of Therapeutic Biologic Protein Products
Ingrid Markovic, Ph.D., Biologist Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Therapeutic Proteins Office of Biotechnology Products, Office of Pharmaceutical Science Center for Drug Evaluation and Research FDA

2 OBP/OPS/CDER Office of the Director Steven Kozlowski, M.D., Director
Wendy Shores, Ph.D., Deputy Division of Therapeutic Proteins Amy Rosenberg, M.D., Director Barry Cherney, Ph.D., Deputy Division of Monoclonal Antibodies Kathleen Clouse, Ph.D., Director Patrick Swann, Ph.D., Deputy Fabrazyme Enzymes Enbrel Fc-Fusion Proteins Interferons Interleukins Cytokines Herceptin Avastin Erbitux G-CSF Epo Monoclonal Antibodies Growth factors Botox Toxins Parallel Office to ONDQA, which also reviews proteins (e.g., insulin, HGH, etc.) (courtesy of Dr. S. Kozlowski)

3 Majority of Biotech Products Use Living Cells to Produce a Protein Product
Insert gene encoding the protein of interest Cells require proper conditions for optimal growth (temp, pH, oxygen, feeds, etc.) Culture and fermentation can take weeks Complex Purification Steps Safe product with desired potency Bar Charts, Inc. 2003

4 Protein Therapeutics Protein Therapeutics are licensed through Biologics License Application (BLA) under provisions of both Public Health Service (PHS) and Food Drug & Cosmetic (FD&C) Acts Protein therapeutics are also regulated through New Drug Application (NDA) under provisions of FD&C Act (e.g., insulin & HGH) BLA under PHS act lacks an abbreviated pathway for follow-on biologics or biosimilars

5 How are Protein Therapeutics different from Small Molecule Drugs?
Contain intrinsic infectious agents Aseptic techniques required during production (terminal heat or gamma sterilization rarely applied) Usually have heterogeneous composition Numerous process and product-related impurities Change in the manufacturing process can cause change in product composition Exact structure may be unknown (e.g., all possible variants often not fully characterized)

6 Structure of Small Molecule vs. Protein Drugs
Proteins have expected: Size, charge, hydrophobicity Correct folding (S-S bonds) Subunits Glycosylation Bioactivity & Unexpected: Aggregation (side effects) Incorrect folding Amino acid modifications ox, deam, cys Truncation, proteolysis Statin ~400 Da * x This slide uses animation when in slide mode. Try to fix. Therapeutic protein ~5, ,000 Da

7 Manufacturing Process

8 Components of the Manufacturing Process
Expression vector (plasmid) Cell banking system Master Cell Bank (MCB) Working Cell Bank (WCB) End of Production Cells (EOP) Drug substance manufacturing and release Drug product formulation and release

9 Expression Vector and Cell Banking System

10 Source Materials Bacteria Mycoplasma Fungi Mice Humans
Mammalian cell-culture Yeast Viruses TSE agents Bacteria Transgenics

11 Expression Vectors (Plasmids)
Used for transfer of genes from one organism to another Used for production of large amounts of protein Description of origin of the construct Plasmid mapping (e.g., restriction sites, integration sites, promoter, copy number etc.) and stability Sequencing of gene of interest

12 MCB and WCB A working cell bank (WCB) is derived from the master cell bank (MCB) and is used to initiate a production batch

13 Characterization of Cell Banks
*dependent upon cell substrate and manufacturing process

14 Characterization of Cell Banks (cont.)

15 Sources of Adventitious Agents
Cell Substrate Endogenous viruses Exogenous microbial contamination Source material screening: Human (HIV, HBV, HCV, CJD, etc.) Animal (TSE sources, species-specific viruses) Raw Materials Cell culture reagents (animal and non-animal derived) Environment Water Air Humans/technicians

16 Viral Clearance for Phase 1 IND
Demonstration of viral clearance may be required. Exceptions: certain source materials (e.g., E. coli, yeast) or in the event of unmet medical need Perform small scale clearance study that mimics the clinical purification process Spike Drug Substance with a model virus to demonstrate viral removal by several logs beyond the potential load CHO cell substrate – demonstrate retroviral clearance Human cell substrate - demonstrate clearance of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses (e.g., parvoviruses) Design the process upfront to adequately assess potential risks Two orthogonal robust steps (e.g., low pH, nano-filtration, solvent/detergent treatment, heat) typically included in the purification process

17 Production and Purification

18 Downstream Processing
Upstream cell culture & fermentation Isolation/Capture of protein Purification Drug substance Formulation Drug Product Protein produced in yeast, E.coli, mammalian cells (ex: 293, CHO) Protein either secreted into media (ex: mammalian cells, yeast) or found in cells (ex: E.coli). Centrifugation, clarification to remove insoluble debris, cells, etc. Harvest is mixture of proteins, lipids, DNA, RNA, media components, etc Can mix and match techniques throughout entire purification scheme

19 Fermentation Process

20 Purification Process

21 Drug Substance and Drug Product Characterization

22 Proteins Can be Heterogeneous Mixtures
pyro-E K pyro-E O D G O Pyro-Glu (2) D Deamidation (3 x 2) O Methionine oxidation (2 x 2) G Glycation (2 x 2) High mannose, G0, G1, G1, G2 (5) This slide has animation when in slide mode. Try to fix Sialylation (5) K C-term Lys (2) (9600)2≈ 108 (Courtesy of Dr. S. Kozlowski) 2 x 6 x 4 x 4 x 5 x 5 x 2 = 9600

23 Drug Substance Characterization
Drug Substance should be positive for identity and have specified criteria for purity, potency and microbial contamination Acceptance criteria for release and stability attributes should be established Often broader early in the development and subject to revisions (e.g., narrowed down) as manufacturing process develops Results from release and stability testing should be provided in the IND Raw data supporting Drug Substance characterization should be provided in the IND

24 Drug Substance Characterization (cont.)
Safety Ensured by the specified limits for bioburden and endotoxin, misc. process-related contaminants Purity & Characterization Assesses capability of purification process to remove process-related impurities (e.g., endogenous viruses, host-cell proteins, DNA, leachables, anti-foam, antibiotics, toxins, solvents, heavy metals, etc.) Product-related impurities (e.g., aggregates, breakdown products, product variants due to: oxidation, deamidation, denaturation, loss of C-term Lys in MAbs etc.) Product substances (product variants that are active) Identity Unique for protein of interest, especially relevant for closely related proteins manufactured in the same facility

25 Drug Substance Characterization (cont.)
Potency Required to assess biological activity of the product Assay should be relevant for protein mechanism of action For MAb or Fc fusion proteins - a binding assay may be sufficient for early development, but a functional assay relevant for the mechanism of action should be developed If mechanism of action unknown - multiple bioactivities plus elucidating higher order structure may be required Strength Protein content Stability Drug Substance stability should be demonstrated with appropriate stability-indicating assays

26 Drug Substance Characterization – Methodology
Safety LAL test, rabbit pyrogen test, bacterial culture methods Purity & Characterization including but not limited to: Reversed-phase HPLC, Peptide mapping, MS SDS-PAGE, Western analysis, capillary electrophoresis SEC, AUC, FFF, light scattering Ion Exchange Chromatography Carbohydrate analysis (capillary electrophoresis, HPAEC = high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, IEF for sialic acid) Identity N-terminal sequencing Peptide mapping Immunoassays (ELISA, Western blotting) Potency Animal-based assays, cell-based assays, reporter gene, biochemical (e.g., enzyme activity) Protein content RIA, ELISA, UV absorbance, Bradford

27 Drug Product Characterization
Safety Final Drug Product for injection should be sterile Within specified limits for endotoxin Immunogenicity should be screened and monitored Successfully reduced in MAb by replacing murine with human sequences Purity & Characterization Product and process-related impurities & product-related substances should be within specified limits Identity Unique for protein of interest, especially relevant for closely related proteins manufactured in the same facility

28 Drug Product Characterization (cont.)
Potency Assay should be relevant for protein mechanism of action For MAb or Fc fusion proteins, a binding assay may be sufficient for early development, but a functional assay relevant for the mechanism of action should be developed If mechanism of action unknown - multiple bioactivities plus elucidation of higher order structure may be required Strength Protein content Stability Drug Product should maintain stability for the duration of the clinical trial Container closure compatibility Primary function - barrier to microbial ingress Extractables/Leachables studies – requirement for licensure

29 Extractables Migrate from a c/c system and/or other packaging components in DP vehicle or solvent under extreme T°C and time conditions exaggerated conditions Helpful in the predicting potential leachables and in selecting the appropriate c/c system

30 Leachables Migrate spontaneously from a c/c system and/or other packaging components normal conditions of use and storage Often a subset of extractables, or derived by their chemical modification

31 Sources of leachables in the product
Syringes/prefilled syringes, ampoules, vials, bottles IV bags Storage bags for product intermediates Closures (screw caps, rubber stoppers) Container liners (e.g., tube liners) Processing equipment: stainless steel storage tanks/bioreactors tubing gaskets, valves, rings filters purification resins

32 Examples of leachables impacting on safety and product quality
Example #1 – Impact of patient safety: Change: from HSA formulation to a polysorbate Unchanged container closure system (pre-filled syringes with the uncoated rubber stoppers) Source: vulcanizing agents leached from rubber stopper over time Outcome: no detectable changes in product quality safety: serious adverse event (PRCA) Hypothesis: leachables acted as adjuvants triggering immunogenicity Example #2 - Impact on product quality: Change from a lyophilized to a liquid formulation Divalent cation leached from the rubber stopper Caused activation of metalloprotease (a process-related impurity co-eluted with the API) Impact: product degradation at the N-terminal site (stability study)

33 Stability Program Drug Substance and Drug Product, real-time and accelerated stability data with several time points under upright and inverted conditions used to establish the expiration period Stress studies (e.g., UV, exaggerated light, temperature and pH) useful to elucidate product degradation pathways and for defining acceptance criteria Limited time stability studies may be acceptable if short-term trial is anticipated Stability data generated from engineering lots also acceptable Failure to demonstrate product stability is a potential hold issue

34 Stability Program (cont.)
The following testing should be included at a minimum: Safety Bioburden/sterility Purity Product and process-related impurities & product-related substances Sialic acid - if appropriate Potency Protein content/strength pH Appearance Leachables (separate study, not part of routine stability testing) Deleted Identity from stability protocol.

35 Good Manufacturing Practices

36 Inspectional Activity
Three types: Pre-licensed (PLI) - announced, generally required for approval Pre-approval (PAI) – announced, could be waived Surveillance (biennial post-licensure) – unannounced No formal inspection requirement for sites manufacturing biologics under clinical investigation Manufacturing and testing sites are subject to inspection Inspection system undergoing revision for OBP products Currently inspections of facilities manufacturing CDER BLA products: PAI led by TFRB, Office of Compliance, with Product Reviewer(s) sometimes part of on-site team Biennial post-licensure inspections led by Team Biologics with Product Reviewers which can be part of the on-site team involved in the inspection NDA Products: Pre-approval and post-licensure inspections led by district personnel

37 Facilities and Practices
Closed systems whenever possible Aseptic Processing CIP/SIP Disposable Systems Environmental Monitoring Water/HVAC Good record-keeping and documentation (phase 1)

38 ICH Q7: Good Manufacturing Practice Guide For Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
I don’t see the value of the table that is shown in this slide Phase III Phase I Phase II Provide greater assurance in linking product quality to commercial manufacture

39 Potential Show Stoppers?

40 Potential CMC Hold Issues for Phase 1 IND
Comparability between preclinical and clinical lots not demonstrated Insufficient characterization of cell banks (e.g., adventitious agents testing, identity, etc.) Inadequate product characterization with regards to purity, identity, potency and safety Lack of final product release testing Lacking or inappropriate specifications for release and stability testing Lacking or inadequate potency assay Data supporting product stability have not been shown for the planned duration of clinical studies Lack or inappropriate immunogenicity assays for high risk products Lack of evidence for final Drug Product sterility

41 Guidance Documents Guidance for Industry: Content and Format of Investigational New Drug Applications for Phase I Studies of Drugs, including Well-Characterized, Therapeutic, Biotechnology derived Products (1995) Guidance for Industry for the Submission of CMC Information for a Therapeutic Recombinant DNA-Derived Product or a Monoclonal Antibody Product for In Vivo Use (1996) Guidance for Industry: IND for Phase 2 and 3 studies of Drugs, including Specified Therapeutic Biotechnology-Derived Products – CMC Content and Format (Draft, 1999) FDA Guidance Concerning Demonstration of Comparability of Human Biological Products, including Therapeutic Biotechnology-derived Products (1996) Guidance for Industry: INDs - Approaches to Complying with cGMP's for Phase 1 Drugs (Draft, 2006) Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use (1997) Points to Consider in the Characterization of Cell Lines Used to Produce Biologicals (1993) International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) documents 21 CFR 200’s, 600’s PHS Act, FD&C Act

42 Acknowledgments Emily Shacter Barry Cherney Steven Kozlowski
Wendy Shores Susan Kirshner Emanuela Lacana Patricia Hughes Joe Kutza All of OBP

43 Questions? Comments?

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