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USAID Environmental Procedures [DATE][SPEAKERS NAMES]

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Presentation on theme: "USAID Environmental Procedures [DATE][SPEAKERS NAMES]"— Presentation transcript:

1 USAID Environmental Procedures [DATE][SPEAKERS NAMES]

2 Basis & Applicability  USAID’s environmental review procedures:  Implement the general EIA process in specific form  Are defined by “Regulation 216” (22 CFR 216)  Foreign Assistance Act & other regulations & laws also contribute to requirements  The procedures (Reg. 216) apply to:  All USAID programs or activities, (including non-project assistance.)  Substantive amendments or extensions to ongoing activities USAID’s environmental procedures are a FEDERAL REGULATION, not just an agency policy. Compliance is mandatory. ! Implementation requirements are set out in USAID’s ADS

3 Procedures Origin and Timeline U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) becomes law on 1 Jan. (First national EIA requirements in any country.) Exec. Order requires all U.S. agencies to consider environmental impacts of actions abroad CFR 216 revised and finalized A generation of implementation. Current challenges: Satisfy host country environmental procedures without duplicating effort. Implement procedures effectively at the SO level Integrate into contracting, project management US NGO sues USAID over negligent pesticide use USAID develops environmental review procedures for all activities Post-1980

4 Purpose of the Procedures The procedures have 2 main objectives:  Use EIA to achieve environmentally sound design  Fulfill USAID’s legal obligation to implement NEPA The procedures also support transparency and accountability, for USAID and its partners.

5 Review: The EIA Process Understand proposed activities Screen Conduct preliminary assessment (if needed) Scope Evaluate baseline situation Identify & choose alternatives Identify and characterize potential impacts of proposed activity and each alternative Develop mitigation and monitoring Communicate and document Phase I: Initial inquiries Phase II: Full EIA (if needed)

6 Review of Phase 1: Initial inquiries Screen the activity Based on the nature of the activity what level of environmental review is indicated? Conduct a Preliminary Assessment A rapid, simplified EIA study using simple tools (e.g. the USAID IEE) ACTIVITY IS OF MODERATE OR UNKNOWN RISK SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE IMPACTS POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE IMPACTS VERY UNLIKELY ACTIVITY IS LOW RISK (Based on its nature, very unlikely to have significant adverse impacts) ACTIVITY IS HIGH RISK (Based on its nature, likely to have significant adverse impacts) Phase II Phase I Understand proposed activity Why is the activity being proposed? What is being proposed? BEGIN FULL EIA STUDY STOP EIA process

7 Where does the Reg. 216 process begin?  The process of compliance under Reg. 216 starts in the same way as ANY EIA process Understand the proposed activity Why is the activity being proposed? What is being proposed? Screen the activity Based on the nature of the activity what level of environmental review is indicated? 1 2

8 Screening under Reg Is the activity an EMERGENCY? NO 2. Is the activity VERY LOW RISK? 3. Is the activity HIGH RISK? Prepare Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) NO YES start Screening results & their meaning “EXEMPTION” No environmental review required, but anticipated adverse impacts should be mitigated “CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION” In most cases, no further environmental review is necessary. ATTENTION: You probably must do a full Environmental Assessment (EA) or revise the activity (or not yet clear) Prepare Environmental Assessment (full EIA study) Allowed by Reg. 216 But not recommended recommended

9 USAID Screening Categories: Exemptions 1. Is the activity an EMERGENCY? YES start TO ANSWER “YES” TO THIS QUESTION, THE ACTIVITY MUST MEET THE DEFINITION OF “EXEMPTION” IN REG 216 !

10 USAID Screening Categories: Exemptions “Exempt” activities often have significant adverse impacts. Good practice requires mitigating these impacts, where possible. ! 1.International disaster assistance 2.Other emergency situations requires Administrator (A/AID) or Assistant Administrator (AA/AID) formal approval 3.Circumstances with “exceptional foreign policy sensitivities” requires A/AID or AA/AID formal approval Under Reg 216, EXEMPTIONS are ONLY...

11 USAID Screening Categories: Categorical Exclusions 1. Is the activity an EMERGENCY? NO 2. Is the activity VERY LOW RISK? YES start TO ANSWER “YES” TO THIS QUESTION, THE ACTIVITY MUST MEET THE DEFINITION OF “CATEGORIAL EXCLUSION” IN REG. 216 !

12 USAID Screening Categories: Categorical Exclusions 1.Education, tech. assistance, training 2.Documents or information transfers 3.Analyses, studies, academic or research workshops and meetings 4.Support to intermediate credit institutions where USAID does not review loans 5.Nutrition, health, family planning activities except where infectious medical waste is generated Under Reg. 216, ONLY a specific set of activities may receive categorical exclusions... No categorical exclusions are possible when an activity involves pesticides ! And certain other situations where USAID does not have direct knowledge or control Note: see 22 CFR 216.2(c)(2) for full list

13 USAID Screening Categories: EA Typically Required 1. Is the activity an EMERGENCY? NO 2. Is the activity VERY LOW RISK? 3. Is the activity HIGH RISK? NO YES start TO ANSWER “YES” TO THIS QUESTION, THE ACTIVITY WILL NORMALLY BE AN “ACTIVITY FOR WHICH AN EA IS NORMALLY REQUIRED” IN REG. 216 !

14 USAID Screening Categories: EA Typically Required Penetration road building or improvement Irrigation, water management, or drainage projects Agricultural land leveling New land development; Programs of river basin development Large scale agricultural mechanization Resettlement Powerplants & Industrial plants Potable water & sewage, “except small-scale” Under Reg. 216, the following activities USUALLY require a full environmental assessment AND... Reg. 216 does not specify scales for these activities. !

15 USAID Screening Categories: EA Typically Required 1.Activities involving procurement or use of logging equipment. 2.Activities with the potential to significantly degrade national parks or similar protected areas or introduce exotic plants or animals into such areas. Sections 118 & 119 of the Foreign Assistance Act require an EA for... Reg. 216 allows you to proceed directly to an Environmental Assessment for these activities. However, we recommend doing a preliminary assessment (IEE) first. ! AND...

16 Review: Screening under Reg Is the activity an EMERGENCY? NO 2. Is the activity VERY LOW RISK? 3. Is the activity HIGH RISK? Prepare Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) NO YES start Screening results & their meaning “EXEMPTION” No environmental review required, but anticipated adverse impacts should be mitigated “CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION” In most cases, no further environmental review is necessary. ATTENTION: You probably must do a full Environmental Assessment (EA) or revise the activity (or not yet clear) Prepare Environmental Assessment (full EIA study) Allowed by Reg. 216 But not recommended recommended

17 What documentation is required?  The outcome of your screening process determines the documentation you must submit: Overall screening resultsEnvironmental documentation required All activities are exemptNone* All activities are categorically excluded Categorical Exclusion request* All activities require an IEEIEE covering all activities* Some activities are categorically excluded, some require an IEE An IEE that*:  covers activities for which an IEE is required AND  Justifies the categorical exclusions *plus a Compliance facesheet

18 Basic Reg. 216 compliance documents Initial Environmental Examination 1. Goals and purpose of project; list of activities 2. Baseline information 3. Evaluation of potential environmental impacts 4. Recommended findings, mitigation & monitoring Categorical Exclusion Request 1.Goals and purpose of project: list activities 2.Justification for a Categorical Exclusion (must cite the appropriate section of Reg. 216.) The IEE is USAID’s “preliminary assessment” The categorical exclusion request is a simple document used when ALL activities are “low risk” A “facesheet” form accompanies both the IEE & the CatEx Request 1 2 3

19 An IEE is a likely result of the screening process...  For a program of small-scale activities, the most likely result of the screening process is that you will need to prepare an IEE. The IEE is USAID’s “preliminary assessment” What is the purpose of a preliminary assessment? ?

20 Review: Purpose of the Preliminary Assessment Screen the activity Based on the nature of the activity what level of environmental review is indicated? Conduct a Preliminary Assessment A rapid, simplified EIA study using simple tools (e.g. the USAID IEE) ACTIVITY IS OF MODERATE OR UNKNOWN RISK SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE IMPACTS POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE IMPACTS VERY UNLIKELY ACTIVITY IS LOW RISK (Based on its nature, very unlikely to have significant adverse impacts) ACTIVITY IS HIGH RISK (Based on its nature, likely to have significant adverse impacts) Phase II Phase I Understand proposed activity Why is the activity being proposed? What is being proposed? BEGIN FULL EIA STUDY STOP EIA process

21 Purpose of the IEE Provide documentation and analysis that: Allows the preparer to determine whether or not significant adverse impacts are likely Allows the reviewer to agree or disagree with the preparer’s determinations Sets out mitigation and monitoring for adverse impacts Like any preliminary assessment the purpose of the IEE is to... What determinations result from an IEE?

22 RecommendationReg. 216 terminology Implications (if IEE is approved) No significant adverse environmental impacts NEGATIVE DETERMINATION Activity passes environmental review With specified mitigation and monitoring, no significant environmental impacts NEGATIVE DETERMINATION WITH CONDITIONS The activity passes environmental review on the condition that the specified mitigation and monitoring is implemented Significant adverse environmental impacts are possible POSITIVE DETERMINATION Do full EA or redesign activity Not enough information to evaluate impactsDEFERRAL You cannot implement the activity until the IEE is finalized  For each activity addressed, the IEE makes one of 4 recommendations regarding its possible impacts: Recommended Determinations in the IEE

23 Note: If a “negative determination with conditions” is approved, those conditions become REQUIRED parts of project implementation & monitoring !

24 Submission & Approval Requirements Consult with the MEO/BEO/ REO on difficult issues BEFORE submission. Provide adequate information on each activity for the reviewer to evaluate your conclusion. Recommend appropriate determinations. BE PROACTIVE—Include monitoring and mitigation plan. How to avoid rejection or delay of activities on environmental grounds...  Both IEEs and Categorical Exclusions must be approved at the Mission Level & by the Bureau Environmental Officer (BEO; USAID/Washington)  Approval is not automatic.  Back-and-forth dialogue is often required Categorical exclusions exist AT THE DISCRETION of the BEO Note: !

25 Applying Reg. 216 at the SO level  Reg. 216 was written with the idea that it would be applied at the project or activity level  Increasingly, IEEs are written at the SO level  To create a more manageable workload for MEOs, BEOs  To try to assure that environmental issues are considered early in program design  The success of SO-level IEEs depends on:  Mitigation and monitoring conditions successfully transferred to projects (e.g., written into contractor/partner SOWs)  Effective implementation of sub-project review where required

26 The final message USAID’s environmental procedures are not an exercise in paperwork. They should result in environmentally sound design. At a minimum, this requires compliance. (Especially implementation and monitoring of all conditions.) ! use the Reg 216 process to proactively address environmental issues & build capacity for environmentally sound design. GO BEYOND THE MINIMUM!


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