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Algorithms and Data Structures Group Gerth Stølting Brodal Faculty Meeting, Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, October 3, 2014

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VIP Lars Arge (Professor) Gerth Stølting Brodal (Lektor) Peyman Afshani (Adjunkt) Kasper Green Larsen (Adjunkt) PostDocs Allan Grønlund Jørgensen (HTF) Wanbin Son Zengfeng Huang Constantinos Tsirogiannis (AUFF) PhD students Bryan Wilkinson Edvin Berglin Ingo van Duijn Jakob Truelsen Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl Nielsen Jungwoo Yang Morten Revsbæk Sarfraz Raza Mathias Rav Konstantinos Mampentzidis MSc students Claus Jespersen Mikkel Engelbrecht Hougaard Bo Mortensen Programmer Svend Christian Svendsen Administration Trine Ji Holmgaard Jensen, Katrine Østerlund Rasmussen, Ellen Kjemtrup Weekly visitors Peder Klith Bøcher Brody Steven Sandel (Biodiversity Group)

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Events Workshop on Massive Data Algorithmis (2009 -) Symposium on Computational Geometry (2009) European Symposium on Algorithms / ALGO 2016 MADALGO Summer Schools 2007, 2008, 2010 - MADALGO retreat (October)

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Research – Efficiency quartet distance between two trees ? integer sorting, cost per element ? Less practical ? Deeper insights Improved asymptotics More complicated ? lower bound ? algorithm engineering ?

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Algorithms Research Theory Algorithm engineering Applications Peyman Gerth Lars EcoInformatics BioInformatics COWI, DES, EIVA, … Kasper

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Research – Models of Computation RAM model memory access and other operations O(1), sometimes * is (1) Pointer model disallow arrays, memory is a graph with O(1) out-degree Functional model pointer model with no side-effects, implies persistence Comparison model/decision trees simple lower bounds Cell-probe model strong lower bounds, applies to RAM model Bit-probe model fundamental lower bounds, special case of cell-probe Implicit model O(1) working space, store information as input permutation IO model focus on number of memory-disk transfers Cache-oblivious model abstract model to model multiple memory layers Streaming model limited working space, single or multiple scans of input

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NEW Integer Sorting Results Bucket sortO(n+2 w ) Radix sort; Hollerith 1887 van Emde Boas 1975 Willard 1983 superlinear space expected Kirkpatrick and Reicsh 1983 Merge sort: von Neumann 1945 comparison based optimal Thorup and Han 2002expected Andersson et al. 1998O(n) Belazzougui, Brodal, Nielsen 2014O(n) Time per element w log 2 n·loglog nlog 2+ε n O(1) log n 1 2 3 1 2 3 ? (n words of w bits)

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Threesomes, Degenerates, and Love Triangles Allan Grønlund, Seth Pettie FOCS 2014 3SUM problem : Given real numbers x 1,..., x n, does there exist x i + x j + x k = 0 ? Conjecture : 3SUM requires time Θ(n 2 ) Theorem : 3SUM can be solved in time O(n 2 / (log n/loglog n) 2/3 ) 32-911-75910-46

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Planar Orthogonal Skyline Queries Space (words) Query Reporting O(n) O(n lglg n) O(n lg ε n) O(k lg ε n) O(k lglg n + lg n/lglg n) O(k + lg n/lglg n) Counting O(n) O(n lg O(1) n) O(lg n/lglg n) (lg n/lglg n) Gerth Brodal, Kasper Larsen SWAT 2014

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Half-Space Range Reporting Peyman Afshani JCGA 2013

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Memory Hierarchies Processor L1L2 A R M L3Disk bottleneck increasing access times and memory sizes CPU

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IO Model I/O model...but algorithms do not know B and M Assume optimal cache replacement strategy Optimal on all levels (under some assumptions) Memory, size M Block size B Alok Aggarwal and Jeff Vitter. The Input/Output Complexity of Sorting and Related Problems. Communications of the ACM 31(9) 1988. Matteo Frigo, Charles E. Leiserson, Harald Prokop, Sridhar Ramachandran. Cache-Oblivious Algorithms. ACM Transactions on Algorithms, 8(1), Article No. 4, 2012. Disk Cache-Oblivious Model Cost = # block transfers Scanning O(N/B) IOs, Sorting O(N/B log M/B N/B) IOs

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Harald Prokop 1999, MIT MSc thesis ”Cache-Oblivious Algorithms”, June 1999 Recursive layout of binary tree Searches O(log B N) IOs Example: Dictionary RAM Binary Search Tree IO Model B-tree Cache Oblivious Model Recursive (van Emde Boas) Layout

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Computing Multiresolution Rasters Input n x n Output IO Model - O(Sort(n 2 )) IOs Lars Arge, Herman Haverkort and Constantinos Tsirogiannis. ACM SIGSPATIAL 2012. Cache Oblivious Model - O(Scan(n 2 )) IOs Lars Arge, Gerth Stølting Brodal, Jakob Truelsen, and Constantinos Tsirogiannis. ESA 2013. x average Output size =... 1x1 RAM algorithm O(n 2 ) time

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Lars Water

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Terrain Research 324 758 719 324 758 719 324 758 719 324 758 719 Height matrix Terrain model

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Areas Flooded by 100 mm Rain SoCG 2010 MADALGO prototype SCALGO prodct Lars Arge, Morten Revsbæk, and Norbert Zeh SoCG 2010

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Algorithms Research Theory Algorithm engineering Applications Peyman Gerth Lars EcoInformatics BioInformatics COWI, DES, EIVA, … Kasper

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