Presentation on theme: "Neonatal Resuscitation Program ™ and Helping Babies Breathe ® The past, present, and future of neonatal resuscitation efforts worldwide (and lessons learned."— Presentation transcript:
Neonatal Resuscitation Program ™ and Helping Babies Breathe ® The past, present, and future of neonatal resuscitation efforts worldwide (and lessons learned along the way) Errol R. Alden, MD, FAAP AAP Executive Director/CEO November 2011
Objectives Provide an overview of the AAP’s “Neonatal Resuscitation Program” and “Helping Babies Breathe” Highlight the importance of working with local authorities Demonstrate the translation of science into practice Share lessons learned
Neonatal Resuscitation Of the 130 million babies born each year, about 4 million die in the first 4 weeks of life. A quarter of these deaths are due to asphyxia. It is estimated that an additional million develop problems such as cerebral palsy and other disabilities. World Health Report 2005
Neonatal Resuscitation The vast majority of newborn infants do not require intervention from intrauterine to extrauterine life. Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth. About 1% of newborns require extensive resuscitation
Inverted Pyramid of Neonatal Resuscitation Medications Chest Compressions Positive-Pressure Ventilation Initial Steps: Drying, Warmth, Clearing the Airway, Stimulation Assessment at Birth and Simple Newborn Care All infants Some infants Few infants Wall, Lee, Niermeyer et al. IJGO 2009 136 million babies born Approx 10 million babies Approx 6 million babies < 1.4 million babies
Dawes Foetal and Neonatal Physiology. Year Book Medical Publishers Inc; 1968. Pathophysiologic Cardio-Pulmonary Consequences of Asphyxia
Some Recommendations for Resuscitation (1850-1950) Rectal stimulation (stretching of the rectum with a corn cob) Tobacco smoke blown into the rectum Immersion into cold water(+ alternating with warm water)
Some Recommendations for Resuscitation (1850-1950) Intragastric oxygen Rhythmic traction of the tongue Rubbing, slapping, and pinching Raising and lowering of the arms, while an assistant compresses the chest O2O2O2O2 O2O2O2O2 O2O2O2O2
Consequences of Poor Neonatal Resuscitation Increased Death Increased Disability Emotional & Financial Burden Direct Community Costs Loss of Productivity
Neonatal Resuscitation Program mid-1970s: Dr Bloom and Cathy Cropley receive NICHD award to develop an initial simple way to focus neonatal resuscitation teaching 1981: Dr George Peckham, an AHA volunteer and AAP Perinatal Section Chair, advocated for development of a standardized core curriculum 1985: Dr Peckham and Dr Leon Chameides discussed models and outlined the “train the trainer” approach for dissemination Ron Bloom Cathy Cropley
Neonatal Resuscitation Program 1986: Dr Peckham and Dr Bill Keenan, AAP Perinatal Section Leaders, began seeking buy-in from neonatology community for such an endeavor First NRP textbook (1987): based on consensus opinions of leaders in neonatology regarding what was “accepted” practice First 2-day NRP course occurred in November 1987
The Neonatal Resuscitation Program American Academy of Pediatrics American Heart Association The NRP is designed to guide resuscitation of the newborn infant in the critical few minutes during and immediately following birth.
NRP: Program Goal To have at least one person trained in neonatal resuscitation present at every delivery in the United States.
Early NRP Mead Johnson Nutritionals: Neonatal Resuscitation
NRP: US Program History In 24 years: 2.9 million providers have been trained/retrained. Currently in the United States: There are more than 27,000 active instructors. Approximately 130 courses are held each day.
Lesson #2: Convince others the mission is their own Romania 1991
NRP 6 th Edition Update Pulse oximetry added Meconium suctioning recommendations changed Use of supplemental oxygen during resuscitation
NRP 6 th Edition Update, Continued Increase time between initiating chest compressions and interrupting compressions to assess heart rate Induced therapeutic hypothermia Simulation-based educational methodology
NRP Now Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, 6 th Edition, 2011
NRP Outcomes Asphyxia decreased in 10 provinces in China after training with NRP. (Huishan et al 2008) In the first decade, deaths due to birth asphyxia in the US decreased 42%. (Wegman 1991) Introduction of NRP in 10 hospitals in India reduced overall neonatal mortality by 7 per 1000. (Deorari 2000)
NRP Outcomes, Continued Guyer B et al. Annual Summary of Vital Statistics - 1996 Pediatrics 1997; 100:90
NRP: Reach of Program Although reporting of international NRP courses is voluntary, training has been reported in more than 125 countries and translated into 26 languages. Of all the educational material produced by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the NRP is the most widely used around the world.
Lesson #4: Being an expert in your own country doesn’t mean you’re an expert in other countries.
NRP Reach Transferability….to more than 125 countries Sites of NRP Implementation
Lesson #5: Humor may not translate, but laughter is universal
NRP in Developing Countries While NRP has been embraced internationally, the content and format is routinely altered to meet the needs of the learners in developing countries.
NRP in Developing Countries The challenge has been to develop a curriculum, based on the same rigorous science of NRP, that is culturally effective and meets the needs of those who live in resource limited settings.
NRP in Developing Countries Developing an effective curriculum for limited resource settings would impact Millennium Development Goal #4, which is to reduce by two thirds, the under-five mortality rate.
Helping Babies Breathe ®
Global Causes of Neonatal Death UNICEF 2007 Lee, Wall, Cousens et al. Int J Epidemiol (in press)
Big Target of Helping Babies Breathe Lawn JE et al. IJGO 2009; 107:S5 1 million “stillbirths” due to asphyxia 830,000 neonatal deaths due to asphyxia
Helping Babies Breathe Concept International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Science Harmonious With NRP & WHO Recommendation, if feasible Non-Profit, Inclusive Directed To Resource Limited Conditions - Single Provider
Helping Babies Breathe Curricular Concept Pictorial Limited Text Hands On Performance Frequent Skills Practice Simplest Steps “Possible” The Golden Minute
Hands on Practice
Educational Design Adult Learning - TOT, Visual Tool kit Hands on Performance - OSCE Evidence-Based Learner to Facilitator - 6:1 Learning in Pairs
Neonatal Physiology Hypoxia-apnea, slow heart rate Breathing for the Baby-rapid reversal Delays-increase mortality, morbidity
Field Testing Educational Approaches Tanzania, Kenya, India, Pakistan Modified MCQ, Problem-Solving, OSCE Tanzania, Kenya, India, Pakistan Simulator India Implementation Studies Kenya, India, Bangladesh
Educational Field Testing Birth Attendants Increase Level of Skills Attained Testing OSCE Revision of MCQs Revision of Bag/Mask Instruction Revision of OSCEs
Implementation Field Testing Knowledge Acquisition improved Skills Testing – 98% Passed Resuscitation Required ↑ Stimulation ↓ BMV, Suction 6-12 Hours of Training
↓ death at 24 hours among babies not breathing at birth (RR = 0.46) with no change in stillbirths - Tanzania –N=6928/7277 pre/post training ↓ stillbirths (RR = 0.73) with no change in neonatal deaths – India –N=4173/5427 pre/post training Clinical Outcomes
Helping Babies Breathe Tool Kit Action Plan Learner Workbook Facilitator Flip Chart Multiple Choice Questions OSCE Simulator-Purpose Built Bag/Mask/Suction/Stethoscope
Flipchart Workbook Simulator
Routine Care Clearing the airway if meconium present Drying infant Recognize crying Keeping warm Cutting the umbilical cord Encouraging breastfeeding
The Golden Minute ® Recognizing infant not crying Positioning head Clearing the airway Stimulating Recognizing breathing Initiating ventilation by 1 minute
Global Development Alliance for Country-Wide Implementation American Academy of Pediatrics US Agency for International Development Saving Newborn Lives/Save the Children Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Laerdal Global Health
Global Development Alliance Overall Objective Reduce newborn mortality due to asphyxia Guiding Principles Inclusiveness and collaboration Country-owned and country-led Integration with maternal and essential newborn care Shared goal, results, and recognition Brand non-exclusivity
Global Development Alliance The GDA continues to grow each day with new partners: Johnson and Johnson Latter Day Saints Charities Soon to be added: Columbia University Earth Institute Millennium Villages/Cities Project International Pediatric Association
Ongoing Steps Global Development Alliance NICHD Studies Country-wide Implementation Facilitator Video Translations ENC (Essential Newborn Care) and EMONC (Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care)
Fit with Essential Newborn Care Thermal Protection Clean Delivery Cord Management Early Breast Feeding Resuscitation As Required
Hypothesis From Experience Improving Skill in Neonatal Resuscitation Spurs Improvements in Other Components of Early Neonatal Care.
Helping Babies Breathe Sustainability Simple and evidence- based Low-cost and effective Easy to integrate with other essential parts of NB care
BHAG Big Hairy Audacious Goal To have at least one person trained in neonatal resuscitation present at every delivery in the WORLD
Helping Babies Breathe
Lesson #6: A healthy first cry represents a baby with unlimited potential