# Monogastric Production Swine Section Feeding and Management of Swine.

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Monogastric Production Swine Section Feeding and Management of Swine

Nutrient Requirements of Swine Energy Energy Protein (amino acids) Protein (amino acids) Vitamins Vitamins Minerals Minerals Water Water

Energy Pigs, as a general rule, eat to satisfy their energy requirements. Pigs, as a general rule, eat to satisfy their energy requirements. So, how much feed will a G-F pig eat? So, how much feed will a G-F pig eat? Answer: about 5% of body weight. Answer: about 5% of body weight. Actually feed intake, as a percent of body weight, decreases as live weight increases. Actually feed intake, as a percent of body weight, decreases as live weight increases.

Expected feed intake for G-F pigs Baby pigs (5-10 kg) = 460 gms/d (6%) Baby pigs (5-10 kg) = 460 gms/d (6%) Pigs (10-20 kg) = 950 gms/d (6%) Pigs (10-20 kg) = 950 gms/d (6%) Pigs (20-50 kg) = 1,900 gms/d (5.4%) Pigs (20-50 kg) = 1,900 gms/d (5.4%) Pigs (50-100 kg) = 3,110 gms/d (3.9%) Pigs (50-100 kg) = 3,110 gms/d (3.9%) So how much feed will a 250 lb hog consume? 250 lbs. x.04 = 10 lbs/d So how much feed will a 250 lb hog consume? 250 lbs. x.04 = 10 lbs/d

What are the two major functions associated with energy? Growth Growth Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance requirements are related to body weight to the ¾ power which is more commonly referred to as ‘Metabolic Body Weight.’ Maintenance requirements are related to body weight to the ¾ power which is more commonly referred to as ‘Metabolic Body Weight.’

Example of computing DE m Digestible energy (DE) requirement for a 300 lb versus a 400 lb sow Digestible energy (DE) requirement for a 300 lb versus a 400 lb sow DE = 100 kcal of DE/kg of body weight.75 DE = 100 kcal of DE/kg of body weight.75 300 lb sow/2.2 = 136 kg 300 lb sow/2.2 = 136 kg 136 kg.75 = 39.8 kg 136 kg.75 = 39.8 kg 39.8 kg x 100 kcal/kg = 3980 kcal 39.8 kg x 100 kcal/kg = 3980 kcal

Computing DE M continued 400 lb sow/2.2 = 181 kg 400 lb sow/2.2 = 181 kg 181 kg.75 = 49.3 kg 181 kg.75 = 49.3 kg 49.3 kg x 100 kcal/kg = 4930 kcal 49.3 kg x 100 kcal/kg = 4930 kcal So, the estimated amount of DE for maintenance is: 3980 kcal vs 4930 kcal for the 300 lb versus the 400 lb sow. So, the estimated amount of DE for maintenance is: 3980 kcal vs 4930 kcal for the 300 lb versus the 400 lb sow.

Feed required for maintenance Assume the feed (primarily corn) to contain 3500 kcal of DE per kilogram. Assume the feed (primarily corn) to contain 3500 kcal of DE per kilogram. 3980 kcal/3500 kcal = 1.14 kg of feed 3980 kcal/3500 kcal = 1.14 kg of feed 4930 kcal/3500 kcal = 1.40 kg of feed 4930 kcal/3500 kcal = 1.40 kg of feed Essentially 2.5 lbs vs 3.0 lbs of feed Essentially 2.5 lbs vs 3.0 lbs of feed So, the 400 lbs sow who is 133% of the weight of the 300 lbs sow requires 20% more feed for maintenance than the 300 lbs sow So, the 400 lbs sow who is 133% of the weight of the 300 lbs sow requires 20% more feed for maintenance than the 300 lbs sow

Energy feeds for swine What is the most common energy feed for swine in the Midwest? What is the most common energy feed for swine in the Midwest? Corn Corn What would be the second most common energy feed for swine? What would be the second most common energy feed for swine? Milo also referred to as grain sorghum. Milo also referred to as grain sorghum.

What are some other energy feeds for pigs? Oats Oats Barley Barley Wheat Wheat

Protein (AA) Requirements Actually pigs require essential amino acids rather than protein per se. Actually pigs require essential amino acids rather than protein per se. What is an amino acid? A compound that consists of a carbon chain with a carboxyl group and one or more amine (NH 2 ) groups. What is an amino acid? A compound that consists of a carbon chain with a carboxyl group and one or more amine (NH 2 ) groups. Pigs require 10 EAA Pigs require 10 EAA

Let’s define an EAA Essential amino acids are those amino acids that must be added to the pig’s diet because they either cannot be synthesized by the pig or cannot be synthesized in large enough quantities to meet the pig’s daily requirement. Essential amino acids are those amino acids that must be added to the pig’s diet because they either cannot be synthesized by the pig or cannot be synthesized in large enough quantities to meet the pig’s daily requirement.

You should know the 10 EAA required by the pig Phenylalanine Phenylalanine Valine Valine Threonine Threonine Methionine Methionine Arginine Arginine Tryptophan Tryptophan Histidine Histidine Isoleucine Isoleucine Leucine Leucine Lysine Lysine

Tips for memorizing these 10 essential amino acids PVT MAT HILL PVT MAT HILL Private Mat Hill Private Mat Hill TT HallIM VP TT HallIM VP Mr. T. T. Hallim, Vice President Mr. T. T. Hallim, Vice President

What amino acid is the first limiting a.a. in a corn-soy diet? Lysine Lysine Let’s define ‘first-limiting amino acid.’ Let’s define ‘first-limiting amino acid.’ The first limiting amino acid is that amino acid that is present in the least amount compared to the pig’s daily requirement. The first limiting amino acid is that amino acid that is present in the least amount compared to the pig’s daily requirement. Hence, the pig can only grow as fast as the availability of the 1 st limiting amino acid. Hence, the pig can only grow as fast as the availability of the 1 st limiting amino acid.

Something you need to know about cereal grains Cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, etc) as a rule are deficient in protein or more specifically in amino acids. Cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, etc) as a rule are deficient in protein or more specifically in amino acids. Lysine requirement for a 40 lb pig is approximately.95% of the diet. Lysine requirement for a 40 lb pig is approximately.95% of the diet. Corn contains.25% lysine. Corn contains.25% lysine.

Protein supplement Since swine diets consist primarily of cereal grains they need to be supplemented with a protein feed in order to enable optimum performance. Since swine diets consist primarily of cereal grains they need to be supplemented with a protein feed in order to enable optimum performance. What is the protein supplement of choice? What is the protein supplement of choice? Soybean meal (SBM) which contains 2.9- 3.1% lysine or 44 – 48% CP. Soybean meal (SBM) which contains 2.9- 3.1% lysine or 44 – 48% CP.

Other protein feeds Other plant and animal proteins are often used in combination with SBM. Other plant and animal proteins are often used in combination with SBM. Fishmeal (60-70% CP) Fishmeal (60-70% CP) Milk products, such as dried skimmed milk (33% CP) and dried whey (13.3% CP) Milk products, such as dried skimmed milk (33% CP) and dried whey (13.3% CP) Meat and bone meal (50% CP) Meat and bone meal (50% CP) Spray dried plasma protein and bloodmeal (86% CP) Spray dried plasma protein and bloodmeal (86% CP)

Balancing the Diet Pigs generally will do fair job of balancing their own diet if given the opportunity. Pigs generally will do fair job of balancing their own diet if given the opportunity. However, if we allow the pig to select various feeds free choice (cafeteria style) the pig may not do a very good job of with respect to economic efficiency (cost). However, if we allow the pig to select various feeds free choice (cafeteria style) the pig may not do a very good job of with respect to economic efficiency (cost). Therefore, producers almost always feed a balance diet that is premixed to contain just the right amount of required nutrients. Therefore, producers almost always feed a balance diet that is premixed to contain just the right amount of required nutrients.

Let’s balance a diet for a G-F pig Steps required for diet formulation include: Steps required for diet formulation include: 1) Determine the nutrient requirements for the particular class of pigs to be fed. 1) Determine the nutrient requirements for the particular class of pigs to be fed. 2) Determine the nutrient content of the feeds to be fed. 2) Determine the nutrient content of the feeds to be fed. 3) Determine the amount of each feedstuff needed to meet the pig’s nutrient requirements. 3) Determine the amount of each feedstuff needed to meet the pig’s nutrient requirements.

Common methods use to formulate a diet Pearson Square Pearson Square Algebraic Method Algebraic Method Assume you are going to formulate a 16% C.P. corn soy diet for growing pigs. Assume you are going to formulate a 16% C.P. corn soy diet for growing pigs. Assume the C.P. content for corn and SBM to be 8.8 and 44.0%, respectively. Assume the C.P. content for corn and SBM to be 8.8 and 44.0%, respectively.

Steps for the Pearson Square Place the C.P. content of one feedstuff (corn) on the upper left corner of the square. Place the C.P. content of one feedstuff (corn) on the upper left corner of the square. Place the C.P. content of the other feedstuff (SBM) on the lower left corner of the square. Place the C.P. content of the other feedstuff (SBM) on the lower left corner of the square. Place the amount of C.P. the diet is to contain in the center of the square. Place the amount of C.P. the diet is to contain in the center of the square. Substract diagonally the larger number from the smaller. Substract diagonally the larger number from the smaller.

Pearson Square continued 16.0 – 8.8 = 7.2 parts 16.0 – 8.8 = 7.2 parts 44.0 – 16.0 = 28.0 parts 44.0 – 16.0 = 28.0 parts The feedstuffs on the left corners needs to be transferred laterally to the right corners; hence, on the upper right 28.0 parts refers to parts of corn and on the lower right 7.2 parts refers to parts of SBM. The feedstuffs on the left corners needs to be transferred laterally to the right corners; hence, on the upper right 28.0 parts refers to parts of corn and on the lower right 7.2 parts refers to parts of SBM.

Pearson Square continued Next divide parts of corn by total parts (28.0/35.2) and parts of SBM by total parts (7.2/35/2) and multiply each answer by 100. Next divide parts of corn by total parts (28.0/35.2) and parts of SBM by total parts (7.2/35/2) and multiply each answer by 100. The answers you obtain refer to percentage of corn and SBM respectively needed in the diet to provide 16% C.P. The answers you obtain refer to percentage of corn and SBM respectively needed in the diet to provide 16% C.P. So, the diets should contain 79.6 lbs. of corn and 20.4 lbs. of SBM per 100 lbs. in order to provide 16.0 lbs. of crude protein. So, the diets should contain 79.6 lbs. of corn and 20.4 lbs. of SBM per 100 lbs. in order to provide 16.0 lbs. of crude protein.

Pearson Square continued Once you have formulated the diet you should check your answer to be certain the diet is correct. Once you have formulated the diet you should check your answer to be certain the diet is correct. Here is the check: Here is the check: 79.6 lbs. of corn x.088 = 7.00 lbs of C.P. 20.4 lbs. of SBM x.44 = 8.98 lbs of C.P. 100.0 lbs. of diet = 15.98 lbs C.P. 100.0 lbs. of diet = 15.98 lbs C.P.

Minerals Macro minerals: Macro minerals: Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus (P) Sodium (Na) Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) Chlorine (Cl)

Micro (Trace) Minerals Iron (Fe) Iron (Fe) Iodine (I) Iodine (I) Copper (Cu) Copper (Cu) Manganese (Mn) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) Zinc (Zn) Selenium (Se) Selenium (Se)

Salt is generally added to complete feeds at.25 to.50% of the diet. Salt is generally added to complete feeds at.25 to.50% of the diet.

Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin K

Water soluble (B) vitamins Riboflavin Riboflavin Niacin Niacin Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic Acid Choline Choline Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12

Swine producers formulating their own diets routinely use vitamin and mineral premixes. Swine producers formulating their own diets routinely use vitamin and mineral premixes.

Water Water is a very important nutrient. Water is a very important nutrient. Deprivation of water will cause salt poisoning and death. Deprivation of water will cause salt poisoning and death. Water restriction can also significantly reduce performance. Water restriction can also significantly reduce performance. A rule-of-thumb regarding water consumption is a 3:1 ratio of water consumption to dry matter intake. A rule-of-thumb regarding water consumption is a 3:1 ratio of water consumption to dry matter intake.

How much water should a 200 lb pig consume per day? ?? Daily feed intake (200 lbs x.04 = 8 lbs of feed) ?? Daily feed intake (200 lbs x.04 = 8 lbs of feed) 8 lbs of feed x 3 = 24 lbs of water 8 lbs of feed x 3 = 24 lbs of water 24 lbs of water/8.0 = 3 gal of water/d. 24 lbs of water/8.0 = 3 gal of water/d.

Terms to know: Ration = the amount of feed an animal will be given in 24 hours. Ration = the amount of feed an animal will be given in 24 hours. Diet = kind and amount of feeds in a complete feed. Diet = kind and amount of feeds in a complete feed. Ad libitum = animal is given free access to all the feed it can eat. Ad libitum = animal is given free access to all the feed it can eat. Limit-fed = animal is restricted on the amount of feed fed. Limit-fed = animal is restricted on the amount of feed fed.

Feed Additives Non nutritive ingredients routinely added to the diet by swine producers. Non nutritive ingredients routinely added to the diet by swine producers. Antibiotics Antibiotics Anthelmintics Anthelmintics Growth promotant Growth promotant

Antibiotics Antibiotics are compounds produced by microorganisms that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Antibiotics are compounds produced by microorganisms that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Tylan, CSP250 and Carbadox. Tylan, CSP250 and Carbadox.

Anthelmintics Anthelmintics are dewormers Anthelmintics are dewormers Pyrantel tartrate Pyrantel tartrate Dichlorvos Dichlorvos Ivermectin Ivermectin

Growth promotant Paylean Paylean

Why do swine producers use feed additives? To increase growth rate (ADG) To increase growth rate (ADG) To improve feed efficiency (F/G) To improve feed efficiency (F/G) To decrease mortality and morbidity caused by disease. To decrease mortality and morbidity caused by disease. To improve the composition in the carcass (decrease fat content; increase lean content). To improve the composition in the carcass (decrease fat content; increase lean content).

Feeding the Breeding Herd Sows and gilts are generally hand-fed 4 to 5 lbs/hd/d during the first 2/3 of gestation. Sows and gilts are generally hand-fed 4 to 5 lbs/hd/d during the first 2/3 of gestation. Fed 6 to 7 lbs/hd/d during the last 1/3 of gestation. Fed 6 to 7 lbs/hd/d during the last 1/3 of gestation. Self-fed (ad libitum) during lactation. Self-fed (ad libitum) during lactation. A good rule-of-thumb is to feed 4 lbs + 1 lb/pig nursed. A good rule-of-thumb is to feed 4 lbs + 1 lb/pig nursed.

Flushing Flushing refers to an increased level of feeding (6-7 lbs/d) two weeks before breeding until one week after breeding. Flushing refers to an increased level of feeding (6-7 lbs/d) two weeks before breeding until one week after breeding. Flushing results in an increase in litter size as a result of an increase in ovulation rate. Flushing results in an increase in litter size as a result of an increase in ovulation rate.

Gestation gain During gestation gain should be limited to approximately: During gestation gain should be limited to approximately: 30-60 lbs for sows (.5 lb/d) 70-100 lbs for gilts (.75 lb/d)

What about forage for swine? Gestating and lactating sows make the best use of pasture as compared to other classes of swine. Gestating and lactating sows make the best use of pasture as compared to other classes of swine. However, remember most swine today are raised in total confinement. However, remember most swine today are raised in total confinement. Hence, pasture (forage) is not used to any great extent in swine production today. Hence, pasture (forage) is not used to any great extent in swine production today.

What kind of forage makes the best hog pasture? Small grains such as wheat, oats, barley and rye. Small grains such as wheat, oats, barley and rye. Legumes such as alfalfa, ladino clover and red clover. Legumes such as alfalfa, ladino clover and red clover.

When do swine producers add fiber to the diet? Swine producers often add fiber to the gestation diet just prior to farrowing and/or during lactation. Swine producers often add fiber to the gestation diet just prior to farrowing and/or during lactation. Bulky (high fiber) feeds such as oats, wheat bran or beet pulp are added to the ration to prevent constipation. Bulky (high fiber) feeds such as oats, wheat bran or beet pulp are added to the ration to prevent constipation.

Do herd boars get special feed? Generally speaking herd boars are simply fed a gestation diet. Generally speaking herd boars are simply fed a gestation diet. Young developing boars may be fed a diet that is higher in macro minerals (Ca and P) than the standard gestation diet. Young developing boars may be fed a diet that is higher in macro minerals (Ca and P) than the standard gestation diet.

Feeding the suckling pig Baby pigs will start to eat a creep feed by 7-10 d of age. Baby pigs will start to eat a creep feed by 7-10 d of age. Creep feeding is not a very common practice today as compared to the past. Creep feeding is not a very common practice today as compared to the past. Creep and starter feeds are often in pellet or crumble form. Creep and starter feeds are often in pellet or crumble form.

Feeding the Growing-Finishing Pig (G-F) G-F hogs are typically self-fed a complete mixed diet formulated to meet all of their daily nutrient requirements. G-F hogs are typically self-fed a complete mixed diet formulated to meet all of their daily nutrient requirements. In the midwest the typical GF diet is corn and soybean meal based and includes added Ca and P plus added vitamins and trace minerals. In the midwest the typical GF diet is corn and soybean meal based and includes added Ca and P plus added vitamins and trace minerals. Many grower diets will also contain an antibiotic. Many grower diets will also contain an antibiotic.

Feeding the G-F pig Historically speaking, another method of feeding the G-F pig was referred to as “free choice.” Historically speaking, another method of feeding the G-F pig was referred to as “free choice.” Free choice refers to providing free access to grain and a protein supplement separately. Free choice refers to providing free access to grain and a protein supplement separately. Free choice allowed the pig to balance his own diet. Free choice allowed the pig to balance his own diet.