Presentation on theme: "MULTI-WORD UNITS AND PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS IN GENRE SPECIFICATION Mustafa Aksan – Yeşim Aksan Mersin University, Turkey 13 th IPrA Conference 08-13 September."— Presentation transcript:
MULTI-WORD UNITS AND PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS IN GENRE SPECIFICATION Mustafa Aksan – Yeşim Aksan Mersin University, Turkey 13 th IPrA Conference 08-13 September 2013 - New Delhi, India
Aims To classify the multi-word units, i.e., three-word n-grams on the basis of their structural patterns and functions To explore discourse characteristics of imaginative and informative texts in terms of the distribution of the n-grams identified
Corpus Methodology in Discourse Analysis The major contribution of corpus linguistic study of discourse comes from relatively more practical aspect of structural identification. A corpus analysis makes it possible to identify textually significant structures from a large naturally occurring language use data. Furthermore, a corpus analysis, among others, gives us quantitative differences that would help derive qualitative conclusions in a more concrete and reliable manner.
Multi-word unit "… the most frequent recurring lexical sequences in a register” (Biber, Conrad, Cortes 2004) Lexical bundle, chunk, cluster, n-gram
As Sinclair (1991, p. 108) observes: By far the majority of text is made of the occurrence of common words in common patterns, or in slight variants of these common patterns. Most everyday words do not have an independent meaning, or meanings but are components of a rich repertoire of multi-word patterns that make up a text. This is totally obscured by the procedures of conventional grammar.
Multi-word units have identifiable discourse functions, suggesting that they are an important part of the communicative repertoire of speakers and writers, even though they do not correspond to the well-formed structures traditionally recognized by linguistic research. It is possible to decide on the genre or register properties of a text or discourse by simply looking at the recurrent multiword units as they are prefabricated expressions specialized or conventionalized to a particular type as they are used over and over again. Different registers tend to rely on different sets of multi-word units of meaning.
Research on multi-word units Multi-word units in genre | register specification Biber et al. (1999, 2004) Carter & McCarthy et al.(2006) Cortes (2004) Hyland (2008)
Data Two equal size sub-corpora covering a period of 20 years (1990-2009) were constructed from the database of Turkish National Corpus (TNC) Corpus of Contemporary Turkish Fiction (CCTF) Corpus of Contemporary Turkish Informative Prose (CCTIP)
Data CCTF Imaginative prose Samples from novels and short stories 1.009.548 words CCTIP Informative prose Samples from academic and non- academic texts 999.102 words Composition of the corpora
Method Ngram Statistical Package software tool (Banerjee & Pedersen, 2003) is used to generate rank order frequency lists of n- grams Data extraction and sorting are done via AntConc 3.2.5w (Anthony, 2011)
Method A total of 110 tri-grams were analyzed N-grams which are the part of a bigger n- grams were ignored.(Eg. ya da çok > az ya da çok) The statistical analyses were done via Minitab16.
Type 1: NPs or NP Fragments Type 2: Postpositional Phrases Type 3: Degree Expressions Type 4: Conjunctive Patterns Type 5: Ne ‘wh’-Patterns Type 6: Modality Patterns Type 7: Copular/Existential Constructions Structural Description of Tri-grams
Structural Types of Tri-Grams in Turkish What comes out frequency driven analysis are mostly Noun Phrases (NP) or NP fragments The following types that we have identified are almost exclusively NPs yet, we have identified more categories to underlie their special role in the text due to their respective frequencies in the text. For example, degree expressions and quantifiers as well as demonstratives are in fact NP elements.
Type 1: NPs or NP fragments 1.1. Indefinite NP fragments : Degree+adjective+indefinite article daha büyük bir ‘something much bigger’ 1.2. Indefinite NPs: Adjective/demonstrative+indefinite article+(some)thing kötü/öyle bir şey ‘something bad/like that’
Type 1: NPs or NP fragments 1.3. Indefinite NP : Adjective+InArt+Head Noun kısa/uzun bir süre ‘short/long period’
Type 2 : Postpositional Phrases 2.1. PPs with Indefinite NP complements: InArt+Noun+Postposition bir süre/önce/sonra/için ‘ a period/after/before/for’| lit: after a while 2.2. PPs with oblique NP complements: demonstrative/ quantifier+ Noun+ postposition o güne kadar ‘ till that day’
Type 2 : Postpositional Phrases 2.3. Postposition without complement combining following items: Postposition+participle/quantifier için gerekli olan ‘necessary for X’
Type 3 : Degree Expressions 3.1. Adverbial hiç ‘never, ever, no/any’ patterns: ADV+Dem/Art+N/P hiç bir zaman ‘never’ ; bir daha hiç ‘never again’; daha önce hiç ‘never before’ 3. 2. Adverbial çok ‘very’ and daha ‘more’ patterns: ADV+ADV+ADJ çok daha fazla ‘much more’ bir kere/kez daha ‘one more time’
Type 4 : Conjunctive Patterns 4.1. Conjunctive ve ‘and’ patterns: CONJ+fragment from second conjunct ve bu arada‘and meanwhile’ 4. 2. Disjunctive ya da ‘or’ patterns: Disjunctive+demonstrative/determiner ya da bu‘or this’ ya da başka ‘or another’
Type 4 : Conjunctive Patterns 4.3. Additive da patterns: Adverbials+da ‘additive’ bu kez de ‘ and this time’ 4. 4. Disjunctive ama ‘but, however’ patterns: Disjunctive+adverbials ama bir türlü‘but in no way’ ama bu kez ‘but this time’
Type 5 : Ne ‘wh’ Patterns Ne-patterns (wh-patterns): ne+conditional/adverbial ne var ki gloss: ‘what exist RLT’ literal: ‘however’ ne kadar çok gloss: ‘what as much more’ literal: ‘the more’ ne olursa olsun gloss: ‘what happens happen’ literal: ‘in any case’
Type 6: Modality Patterns Modality Patterns: Modal adverb+particle+(demonstrative) belki de bu ‘maybe/perhaps this’ belki de en ‘maybe/perhaps the most’ kim bilir belki ‘who knows maybe/perhaps’
Type 7 : Copular / Existential Constructions 7.1. Linking: bir (some)thing + negative marker / become bir şey de ğ il gloss: ‘a thing not’ literal: ‘(it is) not something’ bir şey oldu gloss: ‘ a thing become-PST’ literal: ‘something happened’ 7. 2. Existential constructions: bir (some)thing+var/yok ‘exist/not’ bir şey var ‘there is something’ bir şey yok ‘there is nothing’
Referring Expressions Text Organizers Stance Expressions Conversational Features Functions of N-grams
Discourse Functions Stance Expressions Epistemic stance, other stance markers Conversational Features Interactional markers-question/inquiry Reporting (Biber et al., 2004; Cortes, 2004; Carter & McCarthy, 2006; Hyland, 2008)
Referring Expressions Time reference tam o sırada ‘meanwhile/at that moment’ Place reference dünyanın her yerinde ‘in all over the world’ Vague expression gibi bir şey ‘something like X’ Quantification bir o kadar ‘even more’ Description çok güzel bir ‘ a very nice X ‘
Text Organizers Transitional signals bir başka deyişle ‘in other words’ Resultative signals bunun sonucu olarak ‘as a result of’ Focusing signals çok önemli bir ‘a very important X’ Framing signals söz konusu olan ‘ the given X /is about’
Stance Expressions and Conversational Features Epistemic stance ve belki de ‘and maybe’ Conversational Features Interactional markers (questioning) öyle de ğ il mi ‘isn’t it so / don’t you agree’ Reporting dedi kendi kendine ‘said to her/himself’
Scale of Ratio Figures Across Genres Low ratio (0-30%) between the use of tri-grams in imaginative and informative texts: Genre-specific use of linguistic expressions- Difference among genres Mid ratio (40-59%) between the genres: The use of tri- gram in one genre is half of the figure in another genre High ratio (75-98%)between the genres: Similarity in the use of linguistic expressions
Category 1- The least similar (00.1-0.18) Imaginative Speech/thought representation Temporal reference Detailed, vivid descriptions Informative: Text organizers: Transitional signals Tangible descriptions
Category 2- The less similar (0.20-0.39) Imaginative Temporal reference Detailed descriptions Informative Text organizers: Transitional signals Tangible descriptions Focusing signals
Category 3- Half of the figure (0.40-0.58) The use of tri- gram in one genre is half of the figure in the other genre
Tri-grams typical of imaginative writing Tri-gramsImaginativeInformativeRatio said to myself1810.06 said to her/himself1710.06 as if s/he was | seemed…1610.06 like a little kid2830.11 just for a moment3050.17 isn’t it so | don’t you agree3580.23 but in no way2460.25 but this time2670.27 as usual | as always61180.30 after all60220.37
Conversational Features in Imaginative Texts dedi kendi kendine (talked to himself / herself) 'Ne hoş!' dedi kendi kendine, 'ben duruyorum, tabiat önümde resmi geçit yapıyor. Ayşe Kulin-Nefes Nefese “How cute!” he said to himself, “I’m standing still and the nature is marching in front of me”. Ayşe Kulin – Breathless dedim kendi kendime (talked to myself) İ kincisinde kapıcıyı buldum karşımda. "Olacak şey de ğ il," dedim kendi kendime. Onu görmek çok güçtür çünkü. Cemil Kavukçu-Yalnız Uyulanlar İ çin I faced with the doorman in my second attempt. “It is unbelievable”, I said to myself. Cause, it is usually difficult to find him. Cemil Kavukçu – For these who sleep alone.
Öyle de ğ il mi ? ‘isn’t it so? / don’t you agree? : Several Pragmatic Functions in Imaginative Texts 1.Confirming or not confirming the proposition stated by the addressee "Evet, bitti işte. Bak şimdi kardeşca ğ ızım, önce Nihan'ı ve Cemo'yu bulaca ğ ız. Onlar da bu mektubun muhatabı, öyle de ğ il mi?" "Öyle..." Şöhret Baltaş-Koşarken Yavaşlar Gibi “Yes, it’s over. Look, my dear brother, first we’ll find Nihan and Cemo. They are also the addressees of this letter, aren’t they? / isn’t it so? “Yes … ”
2. Self-confirming through the elaboration of the topic by means of List reading İ şimi yaparken gevezelik etmek hoşuma gider. Bazıları buna kaytarmak diyor, ama hayır efendim! Ben asla kaytarmam! Hem işimi yaptı ğ ım sürece kimse bana karışamaz, öyle de ğ il mi? İ ster konuşurum, ister türkü söylerim, ister göbek atarım! Dost Körpe-Günah Yiyen I like small talks during work. Some say it’s laziness, but no sir! I never shirk my duties! It is none of their business since I finish my work, isn’t it so? If I wish, I may talk, sing or dance.
2. Self-Confirming through the elaboration of the topic by means of Example Hem yaza dü ğ ün dernek var. İ ktisat etmeliyiz öyle de ğ il mi, henüz on para biriktiremedik. Erdeniz Atasü-Da ğ ın Öteki Yüzü Besides, we will have a wedding in summer. We need to save money, don’t we, we haven’t saved a dime yet. Erdeniz Atasü – The other side of the mountain
3. Summative or text closing signal They who saw them sitting in those big state offices; riding beatiful horses, drinking the best wines, eating the most delicious meals, becomes scared and thrills. They, right at the same time, seems as in gold but rotten cotton inside, aren’t they? But you are not interested in them, only deals with my oranges. I kept silent. I wasn’t in a mood to answer him. I left and thought about what the man said. Who is this man, if not being a master in his sarcasm for his anger to the evil on earth? Time changes in this World; but there always exists a template unchanged. Don’t you think so? İ skender Pala - Ayine
Referential Expressions in Imaginative Texts Time Reference bir an için (a moment for) ‘just for a moment’ İ çeri girince bir an için öyle durdu; İ skender Savaşır-Tutku 2000 After arriving in, he hesitated for a moment. İ skender Savaşır – Obsession 2000 tam o sırada (exactly that time) ‘meanwhile / at that moment’ Adama atabilece ğ im iri bir taş aradı gözlerim. Tam o sırada üstü başı da ğ ınık, belli ki kafası da karışık bir asker belirdi. Ergun Kocabıyık-Bal-Ayı I searched for a stone to throw at him. Just at that moment, a shabby-looking soldier, also seeming to have an untidy mind, appeared. Ergun Kocabıyık – The Honeymoon
Referential Expressions in Imaginative Texts Description bir hali vardı (a state existed) ‘seemed a little …’ Havalı bir hali vardı Senem'in, yere gö ğ e sı ğ mayan...Ahmet Günbay Yıldız-Benim Çiçeklerim Ateşte Açar Senem seemed a little frisky, she was feeling her oats. Ahmet Günbay Yıldız – My flowers bloom in fire bir çocuk gibi (a child like) ‘like a little kid)’ Hüsrev Bey yeniden sustu, utangaç bir çocuk gibi önüne baktı. Ahmet Altan-Yalnızlı ğ ın Özel Tarihi Hüsrev Bey silenced again and looked down, like an embarrassed little kid. Ahmet Altan – The Private History of Loneliness
Text Organizers in Imaginative Texts ama bir türlü (but one way) ‘but in no way’ Ba ğ ırmak için olanca gücümü harcıyorum, ama bir türlü sesim çıkmıyor. Zeynep Ankara- Kanatsız Düşüşler I use my last efforts to shout but in no way could utter anything. Zeynep Ankara – Falling without wings ne de olsa (what more being) ‘after all’ Neyse, onun ailesiyle kalabilirim, ne de olsa üvey kızıyım, herhalde beni misafir olarak kabul ederler. Elif Şafak-Baba ve Piç Anyway, I can stay with his family, I’m his stepdaughter after all. I don’t doubt that they will welcome me as a guest. Elif Şafak – The Bastard of İ stanbul
Tri-grams in imaginative texts and genre properties Time markers, descriptive expressions and conversational features (reporting and interactional markers) reflect the properties of fictional technique: “degree of specification, fictional point of view and fictional sequencing” as stated by Leech and Short (1981: 185). Descriptive focus (vividness and objectivity in description) is said to be “limited to literature…since literature through its medium of language can range over the whole data of human experience” (Leech and Short 1981:183). All these properties of imaginative texts / (fiction as a) genre are conveying the every day language use through more metaphorical and creative descriptions, informal choices of referential expressions and text organizers.
Tri-grams typical of informative texts Tri-gramsInformativeImaginativeRatio in other words5910.02 X to be the first2520.07 as a result2420.08 because of this4750.11 of this kind2730.11 as a whole1820.11 a unique X1740.24 the given X | is about1650.31
Text Organizers in InformativeTexts Transitional Signals bir başka deyişle (a other saying) ‘in other words’ Somut düşünce bile, ancak, belli bir soyutlama düzeyinin üzerine kondu ğ u zaman bir anlam taşır bilimde. Bir başka deyişle, somut düşünce, bilimsel olabilmek için, belli soyutlamalara dayalı sonuçlar ile karşılaştırmalı olarak anlam taşır. Emre Kongar-Devrim Tarihi ve Toplumbilim In science, even concrete thinking makes sense only if it is based on a certain level of abstraction. In other words, to be scientific, concrete thinking becomes meaningful when compared with abstraction based results. Emre Kongar – Sociology and the history of Revolution
bunun sonucu olarak (this result being) ‘as a result’ …limanın ticaret hacminin artması Anadolu'dan Türkçe konuşan pek çok Rum ve Ermeninin Samsun'a gelip yerleşmesine sebep olmuştur. Bunun sonucu olarak Samsun merkez kaza içerisinde gayri Müslimlerin sayısı Müslümanların sayısını geçmiştir. Emin Yolalıcı-19.yy’da Canik Sanca ğ ının Sosyal ve Ekonomik Yapısı. The trading volume increase of the port caused lots of Anatolian Greeks and Armenians to arrive at Samsun and settle there. As a result, the population of Non-Muslims exceeded the Muslims. Emin Yolalıcı – The Socio-Economical Structure of the Canik Province in the 19. Century. bu nedenle de (and this reason) ‘as a consequence’ Adverts, being a needs trigger in the 20. Century, prepares to be a new form of communication in the 21. Century. As a consequence, advertising requests to enlarge its activity space out to the limits of all visible horizons of the earth. Sürreya Çakır-Görsel Medya ve Gerçeklik İ lişkisi
Text Organizers in InformativeTexts Framing Signals ile ilgili olarak (with related being) ‘related to / about’ Ancak Almanlar Enigma operasyonu ile ilgili olarak titiz prosedürler oluşturmalarına ra ğ men,… Süleyman Sevinç-Engima Although Germans formulated strict procedures about Operation Enigma … Süleyman Sevinç – Enigma başta olmak üzere (heading being) ‘being in the first place’ Ekonomik başkent Şangay başta olmak üzere Çinlilerin de son aylarda dolar satışını hızlandırdı ğ ı belirtildi. Cengiz Özakıncı-Euro Dolar Savaşı The financial capital Shangai being in the first place, it is reported that China accelerated dollar sales in recent months. Cengiz Özakıncı – Euro/Dollar War
Text Organizers in Informative Texts Focusing Signal çok önemli bir (very important one) ‘a very important’ Türkiye çok önemli bir ülke, Jeopolitik bakımdan, co ğ rafi bakımdan, stratejik bakımdan çok önemli, yenidünya düzeni orta do ğ uda yeni haritalar çizmek istiyor. Ergun Yılmaz-Musanın Mücahiti Turkey is a very important country; geopolitically, geographically, strategically important. The New World Order tries to draw new borders in the Middle East. Ergun Yılmaz – The warrior of Moses
Referential Expressions in Informative Texts Description bir bütün olarak (one whole being) ‘as a whole’ This review will let you consider the assignment as a whole and figure out if proper links between the chapters exist. Türker Baş – How to prepare academic assignments bir parçası olarak (one part being) ‘as part of’ All mankind and Turkish Society as a part of it, is in a critical turning point of a new age. daha geniş bir When you move to a social environment broader than your family, again we observe that our body language becomes the basic mean for communication. Zuhal Baltaş – Acar Baştaş – Language of the Body
Tri-grams in informative texts and genre properties Informative texts aim to state, explain or explore facts on a variety of entities. Thus, descriptive tri-grams, tri-grams serving the function of all types of text organizers and a small amount of tri-grams functioning as stance markers represent the straightforward and concrete style of informative genre.
Similarity observed in imaginative and informative genre in Referential expressions: Time reference, quantification, vague expressions Text organizers: Transitional signals- contrastive / comparative relations Stance markers: Epistemic stance
Functions of Vague Expressions (…) markers of purposive vagueness and approximation. Vagueness is central to informal conversation, and its absence can make utterances blunt and pedantic, especially in such domains as references to number and quantity (…). Vagueness also enables speakers to refer to semantic categories in an open-ended way which calls on shared cultural and real-world knowledge to fill in the category members referred to only obliquely (see Chafe 1982; Powell 1985; Channell 1994). McCarthy& Carter (2006, p. 22)
gibi bir şey (like one thing) ‘something like X’ Bu gerçek görünmezlik hoşuma gidiyor. Demin yanınızdaydım; şimdiyse suyun dibindeyim. Mucize gibi, tılsım gibi bir şey bu. Hur Yumer-Ahdım Var This real unvisibility gives pleasure to me. Just a moment ago, I was next to you, but now I am in deep water. It’s something like a miracle, a spell. diye bir şey (called one thing) ‘something like’ Elbette dönemin ruhu diye bir şey vardır ve bu her dönem kendi e ğ rilerini yaratır. Murathan Mungun-Bir Kutu Daha Of course there exists something like zeitgeist and it always creates its own curves. Murathan Mungan – Yet another box
Conclusion We have provided an initial list of tri-grams in Turkish. We have noted our initial observations on the on the structural typology of such forms as they occur in the corpora and their respective discourse functions. Compared to English, the structural types of multi-word units in Turkish are far less in number.
Conclusion It is possible to argue that genre/register differentiation can be captured via detailed analysis of tri-grams extracted from a corpus. Following Hyland (2008) Essentially, these are words which follow each other more frequently than expected by chance, helping to shape text meanings and contributing to our sense of distinctiveness in a register.
References Anthony, L. (2010). AntConc (Version 18.104.22.168w) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/ Banerjee, S & Pederson, T. (2003). The design, implementation and use of the (N)gram (S)tatistic (P)ackage. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on intelligent text processing and computational linguistics, 370-381. Biber, D., Conrad, S. and Cortes, V. (2004) If You Look at... : Lexical Bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks, Applied Linguistics 25(3): 371–405. Carter, R. A., McCarthy, M. J. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Conrad, S. (2004). ‘Lexical Bundles in Published and Student Disciplinary Writing: Examples from History and Biology’, English for Specific Purposes 23(4): 397– 423.
References Hyland, K. (2008). As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation. English for specific purposes, 27(1), 4–21. McCarthy, M.C., Carter, R. 2006. This that and the other: Multi-word clusters in spoken English as visible patterns of interaction. In: McCarthy, M.J. (ed.) Explorations in corpus linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 7-26. Minitab 16 Statistical Software 2010.[Computer Software]. State College, PA: Minitab, Inc. (www.minitab.com).www.minitab.com Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.