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Healthy Lifestyles for Students and Consumers Physical Fitness, Sports, and Recreation Kentucky Office for the Blind 2012 AT Conference 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Healthy Lifestyles for Students and Consumers Physical Fitness, Sports, and Recreation Kentucky Office for the Blind 2012 AT Conference 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Healthy Lifestyles for Students and Consumers Physical Fitness, Sports, and Recreation Kentucky Office for the Blind 2012 AT Conference 1

2 Objectives To learn about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, the negative consequences of living an unhealthy lifestyle, and the positive impact that regular exercise has for individuals who are blind or visually impaired To become familiar with modified physical education, recreational, and sports activities available for individuals who are blind or visually impaired To provide information and examples on adapted sports equipment for individuals who are blind or visually impaired 2 Mission Liquid Love

3 Health Benefits of Regular Exercise Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Live longer Feel better Helps you maintain a healthy weight Delay or prevent diabetes, some cancers, and heart problems 3

4 Benefits for Students with Visual Impairments Body image Spatial awareness Self esteem 4

5 Unhealthy Facts U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Over two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese according to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006 and 2007–2008. All adults: 68% Women: 64.1% Men: 72.3% 5

6 Unhealthy Facts U.S. Department of Health & Human Services According to the NHANES, 16% of children ages 6-19 years are overweight. Not only have the rates of overweight increased, but the heaviest children in a recent NHANES were markedly heavier than those in previous surveys. 6

7 Unhealthy Facts U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Children—6-11 years old—who are more likely to be overweight: 22% Mexican American, 20% African American, and 14% non-Hispanic White From NHANES 7

8 Unhealthy Facts U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Adolescents—12-19 years old—who are more likely to be overweight: 23% Mexican American, 21% African American, and 14% non-Hispanic White From NHANES 8

9 Individuals with Disabilities Obesity rates for children with disabilities are 38% higher than for children without disabilities. From the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control 9

10 Education Lower rates of obesity are found among American adults with more education. 35% of adults with less than a high school degree are obese. 21% of adults with a bachelor’s degree are obese. The relationship between income and obesity in children is less consistent. 10

11 Causes of Obesity Genetic makeup 11 Poor Diet Inactivity

12 Inactivity Facts One quarter of U.S. children spend 4 hours or more watching television daily. In 2011, 29% of high school students surveyed had participated in at least 60 minutes per day of physical activity on all 7 days before the survey, and only 31% attended physical education class daily. 12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 57(No.SS-4).

13 13 Inactivity Facts The percentage of high school students who attended physical education classes daily decreased from 42% in 1991 to 25% in 1995 and remained stable at that level until 2011 (31%). KY requires high school students to have only one semester of physical education and one semester of health for graduation.

14 Inactivity Facts According to the National Association of State Boards of Education, Kentucky follows a National Standard for Physical Education that reads: National Standards for Physical Education National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) NASPE recommends that schools provide 150 minutes of instructional physical education for elementary school children, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students per week for the entire school year. 14

15 2012 American Fitness Index Louisville Ranks 48 th of 50 Metropolitan Areas In Fitness Improvement Priority Areas (worse than 20% of target goal): Lower level of state requirement for physical education classes 15

16 Inactivity Facts of Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired Research shows that children with disabilities including visual impairments are often neither fully socialized and not expected to pursue a full range of life options (Stein, 1996). Children who are visually impaired and blind consistently exhibited lower levels of fitness than sighted peers (Blessing, McCrimmon, Stoval, & Williford, 1993; Lieberman & McHugh, 2001; Skaggs & Hopper, 1996; Winnick & Short, 1985). 16

17 Inactivity Facts of Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired Children with total blindness are less fit than other children at least partly because of their lower level of habitual activity (Hopkins, Geata, Thomas, & Hill, 1987). Activities of daily living may demand increased energy, and the need to be fit might be even greater (Buell, 1982). 17

18 Inactivity Facts of Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired Australian researchers confirmed previous findings that link an increased risk in death from factors that include Low body mass index Slow walking speed Lower levels of physical activity Cardiovascular disease Cancer Greater likelihood of falls Health Day, US News & World Report, October 13,

19 Activities to Improve Level of Fitness Adults 30 minutes of physical activity 5 or more days a week Children and teens 60 minutes of physical activity 5 or more days a week 19

20 Individuals Who Are Blind or VI Often Choose a Sedentary Lifestyle Lack of motivation Lack of opportunity for movement Inability to initiate the actions of others Over protectiveness 20

21 Implications for Teaching Lack of sight does not directly cause unique motor or physical characteristics. Reduced opportunity to move may result in distinct characteristics. Lieberman, (2005) Adapted PE & Sport 21

22 Impact of Vision on Motor Development Other Points to Consider… Sound is not a pure substitute for the lure to move out in space. Developing concept of "the world out there" before s/he will know to move out into space 22

23 Impact of Vision on Motor Development Other Points to Consider… Sequence of sound localization development – beginning at ear level, above ear level, below, and finally in front (use of stereo localization) Process of sound localization typically tutored by vision Poor base of support may reduce incentive to fight gravity and move out in space 23

24 Adaptation and Modification Adaptation Using alternative/accessible equipment (guidewire for running) Modification Change/limitation (run 50 instead of 100) 24

25 Adapting Games and Activities General Considerations Student abilities Specific activities Age-appropriate activities 25

26 Activity environment Equipment Rules of the game Skill complexity Assistance 26 Adapting Games and Activities General Considerations

27 Suggestions for Inclusion of Students in Physical Education Review student’s eye report for possible restrictions Consult with the teacher of the visually impaired Orient the student to the environment Evaluate the activity Introduce the activity using detailed verbal instruction and tactile teaching Use of peer tutors 27

28 Verbal Instruction Use precise language and common analogies. If the skill is more complicated or the child has had little previous experience, the skill may need to be broken down into smaller pieces in a process known as task analysis. Do not use the general slang words such as “that,” “heads up,” and “over there.” Consistency in word usage is important for effective instructional communication. Shortening verbal instructions to verbal cues will help guide the child as well as keep his/her movements consistent and on task. Verbal cues must be precise, clear, and free of additional words. 28

29 Tactile Teaching Tactile Modeling 1 29 Physical Guidance 3 Co-active Movement 2

30 Keep In Mind Most skills that people with sight learn incidentally must be taught and reviewed with the student who has a visual impairment. Detailed verbal instruction and tactile teaching are necessary. Movement for students with blindness and visual impairment can be facilitated with sighted guides, guidewires, sound devices, and/or verbal cues. 30

31 Objects can be brightly colored or should at least contrast with the environment. Oral directions, large print, and taped or brailled materials are useful. Real-life objects and situations need to be experienced. Stationary equipment is appropriate. Appropriate lighting needs to be used for various activities. 31 Keep In Mind. Cont’d.

32 Resources The following Web link includes – Copy of this PowerPoint presentation – Selected websites (too many to include them all…) – Resources guides, reference books – Research listings – Other handouts 32

33 Resources The following Web link includes products/sports equipment to help teach your students. Check out the APH Physical Education Web site and the booth in the exhibit hall. 33

34 Sports Opportunities in Kentucky for Children, Youth, & Adults Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired 34

35 Kentucky School for the Blind Sports Track & Field Wrestling Cheerleading Swimming Goalball 35

36 Lions Camp Crescendo For Youth with Visual Impairment and Blindness Lebanon Junction, KY campcrescendo.org/blind_camps.html campcrescendo.org/blind_camps.html Billie J. Flannery (502)

37 KABA Mission Empowering Kentuckians who have visual impairment and blindness through health education and athletic opportunities. 37

38 KABA Activities Goalball Judo Beep Baseball Yoga 38

39 Goalball Invented in 1946 by Austrian Hanz Lorenzen and German Sepp Reindle to rehabilitate blinded war veterans Introduced to the world in 1976 at the Paralympics in Toronto, Canada Has become most popular team sport for the blind in the world 39

40 Goalball Research at the Kocaeli University School of Medicine and School of Physical Education conducted on 103 male students with varying degrees of blindness suggests that goalball may be considered an effective option to improve motor skills in visually impaired children (COLAK Tuncay, BAMAC Belgin, AYDIN Mensure, MERIC Bergun, OZBEK Aydin, 2004, Isokenetics and Exercise Science). 40 Goalball

41 Goalball may be ordered from USABA. Playing area large enough to accommodate the court, 18 meters x 9 meters Court tape String Eyeshades Elbow and knee pads Athletic supporter and cup for boys 41 Goalball Equipment

42 Small beeping sound module placed in normal-sized baseball in 1964 by Charley Fairbanks, a Mountain Bell Pioneer. Game didn’t catch on until 1975 when the Minnesota Telephone Pioneers presented John Rose, Director of the Braille Sports Foundation, with a newly designed beep baseball that would withstand the impact of being solidly hit. That same year, the National Beep Baseball Association was formed; a World Series has been held every year since. APH is developing an electronic T-ball for younger children. 42 Beep Baseball

43 How is the mission of KABA accomplished? Presentations and demonstrations Programs Resource 43

44 KABA Needs Your Help Spread the word Ideas Volunteers Board members Financial 44

45 USABA Sports Cycling Bowling Goalball Gymnastics Judo Powerlifting Rowing Skiing Swimming Track & Field Wrestling 5-A Side Football 45

46 USABA Contact Information 33 North Institute St. Colorado Springs, CO

47 Contact Information Kenneth Jones, KSB Outreach 1867 Frankfort Ave Louisville, KY Ext Tristan Pierce, APH Research 1839 Frankfort Ave Louisville, KY

48 The End 48


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