Presentation on theme: "Why does reproduction require 2 types of cell division?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Why does reproduction require 2 types of cell division? Asexual & Sexual Reproduction
2 Asexual reproduction & cell division Asexual reproduction is reproduction involving only one source of genetic material (i.e. one parent).This means that offspring are genetically identical to the parent, or clones.
3 Several types of asexual reproduction: Binary fission occurs when a unicellular organism (such as bacteria or an amoeba) divides into two equally sized cells for the purpose of reproduction.
4 Several types of asexual reproduction: Budding occurs when simple organisms (such as yeast or hydra) produce much smaller cells than those of the parent organism.
5 Several types of asexual reproduction: Sporulation occurs when an organism (such as mushrooms) produce spores - tiny packets of DNA - for the purpose of reproduction.
6 Several types of asexual reproduction: Vegetative propagation occurs when a portion of a plant goes through cell division in order to produce another plant.
7 Several types of asexual reproduction: Regeneration occurs when a part of an animal (such as an earthworm) undergoes cell division to produce a new organism.
8 Fill It In … Simple pictures of asexual reproduction: Binary fission BuddingSporulationVegetative propagationRegeneration
9 Advantages & Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction Advantages of asexual reproduction include speed of reproduction and producing multiple copies of successful genetic combinations.
10 Advantages & Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction Disadvantages of asexual reproduction include increased risk of a single factor affecting an entire population due to lack of genetic variation
11 Mitosis is usually the mechanism that allows asexual reproduction to occur. For example, when an earthworm is cut in half, cells must use mitosis to divide in order to produce cells which will reconstruct the missing portion
12 Sexual reproduction & cell division Sexual reproduction is reproduction involving two sources of genetic material (i.e. two parents).This means that offspring will be genetic combinations of the two parents.
13 Sexual reproduction & cell division Gametes are sex cells, such as sperm and eggThe purpose of a gamete is to fuse with another gamete to combine genetic material (fertilization).
14 Sexual reproduction & cell division A zygote is the cell which is produced by fertilization.The zygote will develop into an embryo.
16 Advantages & Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction The main advantage of sexual reproduction is genetic variation.With many genetic possibilities, the likelihood of a successful combination of traits for a particular environment is high
17 Advantages & Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction The disadvantages of sexual reproduction include the necessity of mating for fertilization (which requires more time) and the risks of unfavorable genetic combinations.
18 Fill It In …Summary:Advantage DisadvantageAsexualSexual
19 Although sexual reproduction begins differently than asexual reproduction (with two parents as opposed to one parent), sexual reproduction also relies on cell division
22 Meiosis Meiosis is a type of cell division which produces gametes. Meiosis is a unique type of cell division because it divides the genetic material in half, allowing for fertilization.
23 Meiosis Example: Human body cells contain 46 chromosomes In order for a zygote (fertilized egg) to contain 46 chromosomes, the sperm and egg must each contain only 23 chromosomes
24 Mitosis is the process which allows the zygote to begin dividing to produce a multicellular organism.The cells must also differentiate (become different types of cells to carry out different functions)
25 Fill It In … In sexual reproduction … Job of meiosis - Job of mitosis -
26 Check Yourself!How many sources of genetic material are involved in asexual reproduction? In sexual reproduction?Name five types of asexual reproduction.Why is mitosis necessary for asexual reproduction?Name one advantage and one disadvantage of asexual reproduction.What are gametes? How is a zygote produced from gametes?Name one advantage and one disadvantage of sexual reproduction.How are both mitosis and meiosis necessary for sexual reproduction?
27 Check Yourself!How many sources of genetic material are involved in asexual reproduction? In sexual reproduction?ASEXUAL - ONE SOURCE/ONE PARENTSEXUAL - TWO SOURCES/TWO PARENTS
28 Check Yourself! 2. Name five types of asexual reproduction. BINARY FISSIONBUDDINGSPORULATIONVEGETATIVE PROPAGATIONREGENERATION
29 Check Yourself! 3. Why is mitosis necessary for asexual reproduction? TO PRODUCE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS
30 Check Yourself!Name one advantage and one disadvantage of asexual reproduction.ADVANTAGE - SPEEDMULTIPLE COPIESDISADVANTAGE - NO GENETIC VARIATION
31 Check Yourself!What are gametes? How is a zygote produced from gametes?GAMETES ARE SEX CELLS (SPERM OR EGG)ZYGOTES ARE PRODUCED BY THE FERTILIZATION OF GAMETES
32 Check Yourself!Name one advantage and one disadvantage of sexual reproduction.ADVANTAGE - GENETIC VARIATIONDISADVANTAGE - TAKES TIMERISK OF UNFAVORABLEGENETIC COMBINATIONS
33 Check Yourself!How are both mitosis and meiosis necessary for sexual reproduction?MEIOSIS - CREATES GAMETES; CUTS CHROMOSOME NUMBER IN HALFMITOSIS - GROWTH OF A MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM
34 How does meiosis produce gametes? Recall that a gamete is very different from a somatic (body) cell.
35 Somatic cells & gametes A somatic cell is diploid, which means that it contains two of each type of chromosome.
36 Somatic cells & gametes These chromosome pairs are called homologous chromosomes.For example, a human has 23 types of chromosomes.A human somatic cell has 46 total chromosomes, consisting of 23 homologous pairs.
37 Somatic cells & gametes A gamete is haploid, which means it contains only one of each type of chromosome (one from each homologous pair).For example, a human egg cell (ovum) contains 23 total chromosomes.
40 Fill It In … # of chromosomes in a human … DIPLOID cell ______ HAPLOID cell ______
41 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle & Meiosis At the end of interphase (the longest part of the cell cycle in which the cell completes normal life functions), the cell duplicates the DNA.This creates doubled chromosomes.The cell is now ready to divide.
42 Meiosis requires 2 cell divisions: Meiosis I is called the reduction division.In this division, the homologous pairs of doubled chromosomes are separated.The end result of Meiosis I is two daughter cells, each of which is haploid but contains doubled genetic material
43 Meiosis requires 2 cell divisions: Meiosis II uses the same basic steps as mitosis.In this division, the doubled chromosomes are separated.The end result of Meiosis II is four daughter cells, each of which is haploid and contains no duplicated DNA.
45 Graphical representation of Meiosis: 46doubledMeiosis I23doubled23doubledMeiosis II23singled23singled23singled23singled
46 Fill It In …Label each of the cells in the diagram as “diploid” or “haploid”46doubledMeiosis I23doubled23doubledMeiosis II23singled23singled23singled23singled
47 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: Gene mutations can occur during the duplication of DNA at the end of interphase before meiosis (or mitosis) begins.
48 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: Crossing over occurs when the homologous pairs come together during Meiosis I (Prophase I).In crossing-over, a part of one chromosome can switch places with the same part of the homologous chromosome.
49 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: Then, when the homologous pairs are separated, each chromosome will be different than the original.
50 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: Random assortment of chromosomes into daughter cells during Meiosis I allows for a mix of the chromosomes inherited from each parent.
51 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: Nondisjunction, when homologous chromosomes do not properly separate, may occur during Meiosis I or II, creating a gamete with one too many or one too few chromosomes.
52 Meiosis provides several sources of genetic variation: The random fertilization of any one egg by any one sperm allows for numerous genetic combinations in offspring.
53 Fill It In …Summary of sources of genetic variation:22.214.171.124.5.
54 Check Yourself!How is the chromosome number of a gamete different from the chromosome number of a somatic cell?What types of cells are diploid? Haploid?What is the purpose of meiosis?What is another name for Meiosis I?How is the purpose of Meiosis I different from the purpose of Meiosis II?Name five sources of variation Meiosis provides.Describe crossing-over.
55 Check Yourself!How is the chromosome number of a gamete different from the chromosome number of a somatic cell?GAMETES HAVE 1/2 THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES
56 Check Yourself! What types of cells are diploid? Haploid? DIPLOID = SOMATIC OR BODY CELLSHAPLOID = GAMETES OR SEX CELLS
57 Check Yourself! What is the purpose of meiosis? TO CREATE HAPLOID CELLS (CELLS WITH 1/2 THE “NORMAL” CHROMOSOME NUMBER)
58 Check Yourself!What is another name for Meiosis I?REDUCTION DIVISION
59 Check Yourself!How is the purpose of Meiosis I different from the purpose of Meiosis II?MEIOSIS I CREATES HAPLOID DOUBLED CHROMOSOMESMEIOSIS II CREATES HAPLOID SINGLE CHROMOSOMES
60 Check Yourself! Name five sources of variation Meiosis provides. GENE MUTATIONSCROSSING OVERRANDOM ASSORTMENTNONDISJUNCTIONRANDOM FERTILIZATION
61 Check Yourself! Describe crossing-over. CROSSING-OVER OCCURS WHEN HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS COME TOGETHER (OVERLAP) DURING PROPHASE I.PART OF ONE CHROMOSOME SWITCHES PLACES WITH THE SAME PART OF THE HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME.THIS RESULTS IN A NEW COMBINATION OF GENETIC MATERIAL.