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The Bioclimatologic Features of Turkish Spa Resorts Prof Dr Hatice GÜRDAL Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology.

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Presentation on theme: "The Bioclimatologic Features of Turkish Spa Resorts Prof Dr Hatice GÜRDAL Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bioclimatologic Features of Turkish Spa Resorts Prof Dr Hatice GÜRDAL Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department

2 Spa treatment is performed as a complex cure system under the influence of local climato therapeutic factors, together with other comprehensive therapy methods

3 At first, each guest who came to health resort, exposes to the climatic conditions

4 The climatic features of the health – spa resort have a great influence on human health and recreation.

5 Meteorological analysis and interpretation of thermo physiologically effectiveness of health spa resort climate is important

6 Thus medical doctors are able to obtain better information about the special bioclimatic features of the resorts, to agree them with the individual physiological parameters of the guest and develop a cure therapy programs

7 Turkey lies between the northern 36-42 latitudes and the eastern 26-45 longitude

8 Turkey has Subtropical Climate in Mediterranean Region

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10 There are mainly 7 geographical regions

11 The Climate Varies From Region to Region Marmara, Aegean and the Mediterranean: Typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters Black Sea Coast: Temperate climate with warm summers, mild winters and relatively high rainfall Central Anatolia: Hot, dry summers and cold winters Eastern Anatolia: Long snowy, cold winters and mild summers South-East Anatolia: Hot summers with mild, rainy winters

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13 Middle Anatolia and the Aegean region have got the most of the spas in Turkey. Marmara region follows these regions as the number of health spa centers (82% of Turkey).

14 The description of the climatic conditions of Middle Anatolia and inland Aegean are continental, coastal Aegean and Marmara regions are maritime.

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16 The Most of the Health Spa’s are at 600 - 1300 m. Altitude (50% of Turkey) Few of them covered by forests, most of them are not. Dominating bioclimatic features are moderately stimulating factors

17 Health Spa Cure Centers in Middle Anatolia Mild Stimulant Ankara-Beypazarı Ni ğ de- Çiftehan Konya -Ilgın Kırşehir-Terme Strong Stimulant Sivas- Kangal Yozgat -Bo ğ azlayan Eskişehir Ankara- Kızılcahamam Ankara- Haymana

18 Health Spa Cure Centers in Aegean Region Coastal Region İ zmir-Balçova İ zmir- Çeşme Mu ğ la-Köyce ğ iz Aydın -Kuşadası Inland Region Afyon- Oruço ğ lu, İ kbal, Sandıklı Kütahya- Harlek, Yoncalı Denizli-Pamukkale, Karahayıt

19 Health Spa Cure Centers in Marmara Region Coastal Region Armutlu Çanakkale-Ezine Istanbul-Tuzla Inland Region Yalova -Termal Bursa- Askeri Hasth., Kükürtlü, Oylat Bolu Gönen Adapazarı-Kuzuluk

20 ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY

21 LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TURKEY

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24 Stimulative Bioclimatological Effects Inland Regions at Moderate Altitude in Turkey Decreased atmospheric temperature Decreased atmospheric humidity Increased wind activity Decreased sultry days Increased night chilling Decreased antropogenic pollution Increased global / UV-radiation

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26 Unfavorable Bioclimatologic Factors At the Middle High Mountain Region Especially at night cold stress can be expected in summer period There is a few sultry days in the summer period There hasn’t been any measures about air pollutant at Spa centers

27 Altitude - The Number of the Cold Night (Under 15 ° C )

28 Number of foggy days per year Balçova1 Ezine4 Kızılcaham.5 Yalova7 Gönen 46 Bolu 32 Oylat 22 Ayaş 20

29 Annual Duration of Sunshine must be higher than 1500 hours (The climatic Limits for spa center by Deutscher Heilbäderverband ) All of Turkish Spa centers receive more than 1500 hrs/year Balçova 3000 Ezine 2800 Yalova 2400 Gönen 2600 Bolu 2200 Oylat 2400 Kızılcahamam 2400 Ayaş 2600

30 The Number of Sultry Days Per Year Beypazarı628 m.10-15 days/year Ayaş720 m.1-2 days/year Eskişehir801 m.none Kırşehir985 m.1-2 days/year Kızılcaha.1002 m.none Ilgın1030 m.none Haymana1225 m.none Nevşehir1260 m.none Sivas1285 m.none Kangal1545 m.none

31 Sultry Days at Continental Climate ( inland )of Turkey 0 – 500 m 500 – 1000 m 1000 – 1500 m > 1500 m 10-15 sultry days 5-10 sultry days a few sultry days none sultry days

32 Sultry Days in Summer Period are Mostly in South West Regions ( Teq>56.0ºC ) Fethiye - Gebeler İ zmir - Balçova İ zmir - Çeşme Çanakkale - Ezine Yalova - Armutlu İ stanbul - Tuzla

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34 İ zmir - Çeşme1 Tuzla - İ stanbul5-15 İ zmir - Balçova60 Gönen37 Ezine90 Bursa - Çekirge220 Yalova Termal105 Denizli - Sarayköy169 Coastal / Marine climate Seashore urban climate Plate with low altitude Coastal / Marine climate Urban climate Valley / Forest climate Valley Turkish Spa Center at Low Altitude (m)

35 Turkish Spa Centers at Middle High Altitude (m) Bolu750 Oylat - İ negöl840 Kızılcahamam975 Ankara-Ayaş720 Ni ğ de - Çiftehan1200 Konya - Ilgın1027 Forest climate Plateau climate Plate at high altitude

36 Turkish Spa Center at High Altitude (m) Erzurum1690 Sivas - Kangal1600 A ğ rı - Diyadin1500 Yozgat1350 Haymana1300 Ni ğ de - Çiftehan1200 Kütahya - Harlek1050 Mountain climate Plateau climate

37 Thank you for your attention !


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