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Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day The accessibility of social protection for informal workers: a mapping of 5 West African countries André Leliveld & Zjos Vlaminck.

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Presentation on theme: "Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day The accessibility of social protection for informal workers: a mapping of 5 West African countries André Leliveld & Zjos Vlaminck."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day The accessibility of social protection for informal workers: a mapping of 5 West African countries André Leliveld & Zjos Vlaminck African Studies Centre (Leiden) Roundtable II: Exploring the Multiple Roles of Trade Unions in Africa, Leiden, 10 September 2014

2 Outline Defining social protection Social protection & informal workers The state of social protection in –Guinea –Niger –Togo –Benin –Senegal Crosscutting issues

3 Outline Background of the study Defining social protection Social protection & informal workers The state of social protection in five francophone West African countries Crosscutting issues

4 Background of the study Commissioned by CNV Internationaal Consultations of CNV partners put social protection for informal workers on the agenda Inventory of existing schemes in 5 countries: Togo, Benin, Niger, Senegal and Guinea Desk study plus fieldwork with semi-structured interviews Objective: CNV Internationaal wishes to assist their partners in “reinforcing the national social protection systems by strengthening the role of trade unions as a watchdog and a partner in social dialogue in matters regarding the accessibility of social protection for informal workers”,

5 What’s in a name? Plurality of meanings –Adjustment with a human face (1980s/1990s) –Social Risk Management (2000s) –Social security for all (2000s) –Economic security (2004)

6 Today: DWA and Social Protection Floor

7 Today: Transformative Social Protection More emphasis on empowerment and policies that relate to power imbalances in society that encourage, create and sustain vulnerabilities Both formal and informal, Safety net, social services, social insurance and social equity

8 Today: Social Protection and Inclusive Development High economic growth rates go hand in hand with high inequalities and income insecurity Social protection as a means “to protect household incomes and stabilize aggregate demand” (Coleman, 2011: 7). Social protection can foster inclusive growth and development, investment rather than cost

9 Social protection expenditure in Africa

10 Informal Workers and Social Protection Colonial legacy (Code du travail, 1952) Reality of African Labour Markets Social protection as means to an end Social protection as moral obligation Difficulties Who’s responsibility?

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12 The State of Social Protection in Guinea Government social expenditure = 2.47% (2011) Social protection coverage = 3% Challenges: –History of political instability –Unrealistic goals (neglect of socio-economic and political reality) Opportunies –Wealth of natural resources? –Paper commitments (National Social Protection Policy, PRSP III, new labour code)

13 Social Protection Schemes in Guinea Informal workers mostly resort to traditional safety nets and Mutuelles de Santé (e.g. Mutuelle Hadja Rabiatou Sérah Diallo)

14 Areas for Trade Union Activity in Guinea Advocating for inclusive labour code Advocating for redistribution Advocating for a system’s approach Delineating SP priorities Working with existing mutuelles Monitoring quality of services Supporting informal initiatives and local ownership

15 The State of Social Protection in Niger Government social expenditure = 3,29% (2010) Social protection coverage = 3% Challenges and opportunities: –11,1% GDP growth in 2012 but also lowest HDI- ranking –Participatory development of SP framework (2008- 2011) but no implementation –Lack of coherence between SP regimes

16 Social Protection Schemes in Niger Informal workers mostly resort to traditional safety nets and Mutuelles de Santé (in general less institutionalised, smaller scale)

17 Areas for Trade Union Activity in Niger Advocating for inclusive labour code Advocating for redistribution Advocating for a system’s approach Delineating SP priorities Working with existing mutuelles Monitoring quality of services Supporting informal initiatives and local ownership Monitoring WB programmes Joining forces with HR organisations

18 The State of Social Protection in Togo Government social sxpenditure = 5,73% (2010) Social Protection Coverage = 5% Challenges and oppportunities: –Stable growth rates but increase of extreme poverty (extractive industries and social spending) –Amalgam of laws, regimes and responsible ministries –New Social Security Code (2011): extension of CNSS and CRT to informal workers

19 Social Protection Schemes in Togo Informal workers mostly resort to traditional safety nets and Mutuelles de Santé (e.e. CSTT’s own mutuelle MUSA)

20 Areas for Trade Union Activity in Togo Advocating for implementation 2011 social security code and ratification of C102 Advocating for redistribution Advocating for clear divisions of labour & coherence Monitoring Gov’t commitments Delineating SP priorities Working with existing mutuelles Monitoring quality of services Supporting informal initiatives and local ownership Joining forces

21 The State of Social Protection in Benin Government social expenditure = 4,31% (2009) Social protection coverage = less then 10% Challenges and opportunities: –Gov’t obsession with a sound business climate but strong unions –Since 1990 many paper commitments (e.g. Régime de l’Assurance Maladie Universal (2011)) –2003 Social Security Code reference to informal workers –No coherent framework

22 Social Protection Schemes in Benin Informal workers can access MSSB but mostly resort to traditional safety nets and Mutuelles de Santé

23 Areas for Trade Union Activity in Benin Advocating for ratification of C102 Advocating for implementation of RAMU Advocating for redistribution Advocating for clear divisions of labour & coherence Delineating SP priorities Working with existing mutuelles Monitoring quality of services and MSSB Raising awareness Joining forces

24 The State of Social Security in Senegal Government social expenditure = 5,34% (2010) Social protection coverage = 7,5-20% Challenges: –Multiplicity of schemes Opportunities: –Transition phase –Plan Sénégal Emergent (2015-2035) (no consultation with SP stakeholders)

25 Social Protection Schemes in Senegal Informal workers resort to traditional safety nets or Mutuelles de Santé (e.g.UNACOIS)

26 Areas for Trade Union Activity in Senegal Advocating for inclusive labour code Advocating for redistribution Advocating for implementation of CMU Advocating for clear divisions of labour & coherence Delineating SP priorities Working with existing mutuelles Supporting informal initiatives Monitoring quality of services Joining forces

27 Crosscutting Issues Lack of Coherence Lack of Holistic Point of View Lack of Local Ownership Lack of Effective Implementation Lack of Political Commitment Lack of thinking outside the box

28 Crosscutting Issue 1 Lack of Coherence: The politics of social protection Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fishing Ministry of Education Ministry of Health Ministry of Social Protection and National Solidarity Ministry of Work, employment and Social Security Social Protection Ministry of Community Development, Handicraft, Youth and Youth Employment Ministry of Planning Ministry of Finance ILO UNICEF Worldbank UNDP DAC- Donors Non- DAC- Donors

29 Crosscutting Issue 2 Lack of Holistic Point of View: The tunnel-vision of policy development

30 Crosscutting Issue 2 Lack of Holistic Point of View: The tunnel- vision of policy development

31 Crosscutting Issue 3 Lack of Local Ownership: The impact of the Development Machinery

32 Crosscutting Issue 4 Lack of Effective Implementation: Trapped in the policy writing phase Trade Unions

33 Crosscutting Issue 5 Lack of Political Commitment

34 Crosscutting Issue 6 Lack of thinking outside the box

35 Inspiring Initiatives z.vlaminck@ascleiden.nl@ascleiden.nl Leliveld @ascleiden.nl


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