Presentation on theme: "GB 1598-1680 Represent a famous vision describe with frank clarity by Teresa arrow transporting her to a state of ecstatic oneness with God. Charged with."— Presentation transcript:
1GBRepresent a famous vision describe with frank clarity by Teresa arrow transporting her to a state of ecstatic oneness with God.Charged with Erotic associations.In response the eth Protestant Reformation of the previous century reactionary, authoritarian position supported by the new Society of JesusIn the the spiritual exercises initiated by ST. Ignatius Christian were to us e all their senses to transport themselves emotionally as they imagined the event on which they were meditating on the burning fires of hell or the bliss of heaven.Art becomes an instrument of propaganda LIKE NEVER BEFORE SEEN leading the spectator to a renewed Catholic belief and practice.To sever the educational and evangelical mission to revitalize the conservative Church… depicting events following guidelines established by religious leaders.Rubens, Caravaggio great brilliant religious art under official church sponsorship.Today we are uncomfortable with the overt sexuality the church approved it for the sensational and supernatural mystical visionReligious ecstasy was the goal of the Counter Reformation.Gianlorenzo Bernini. St. Teresa of Ávila in Ecstasy –1652. Height of the group 11’ 6”.
2OBJECTIVESUnderstand and assess the impact of the Council of Trent’s guidelines for the Counter-Reformation art of the Roman Catholic Church.Identify and explore the work of Bernini and Caravaggio, the dramatic intensity, technical virtuosity and unvarnished naturalism that informed the transition to the Baroque period.Trace and recognize the broad influence of Caravaggio’s style on art ACROSS Europe during the 17th century.Understand, recognize, and analyze the how and why 17th century artists created works that expressed the power and prestige of the monarchy.Understand, recognize and analyze the development of portraiture, still life, landscape and genre scenes as major subjects in painting, particularly in the prosperous art mark of the Netherlands.
3Intellectual and political forces set in motion by the Renaissance and the Reformation of the 15th and 16th century intensifies during the 17th centuryReligious war continuedProtestant forces gain control of the NorthSpain recognizes the independence of the Dutch RepublicCatholicism maintains its primacy in Southern Europe the HRE and FranceEnergized papacy and Society of Jesus or the JesuitsAt the time scientific discoveries compels people to question their worldviewGrowing understanding that the earth was not centre of the universe but a planet the revolves around the sumRuler’s economic strength begin to slip awayArtists seek patronage from a variety of sources depending on where they are working and their personal beliefs.What evolved was as style art historians call Baroque … may be relate to the Italian Barocoo Italian for an irregularly shaped pearl, beautiful, fascinating and strange.Baroque art deliberately evokes an intense emotional responseDramatically lit, theatrical compositionsAlso their own version of Classical ideals, more moving and dramaticFeaturing:Idealization based on observationBalanced but asymmetricalDiagonal movement in spaceRich harmonious colorsVisual reference to ancient Greece and Rome17th century sought lifelike depiction of the world in portraiture, genre paintings of everyday life, still lifeReligious scene enacted by ordinary peopleIntents involvement, life like rendering and classical references can exist in the same work.Role of the viewers changeIR painters and patrons fascinate with visual possibilities of perspective and idealism of form and subject, keeping viewer at a distance.17th century master seek to engage viewers as participants in the reaching out to incorporate the work beyond the frame into the meaning of the work itself.Catholic: horrifying scenes of martyrdom or passionate spiritual life of a mystic in religious ecstasy to inspire viewers to a renewed faith, making them FEEL not just think about what it going onProtestant: communal parades,City view sought to inspire pride in civic accomplishments.V ewers participate in a work of art like in a theatre17th-Century Europe.
4ItalyDivided land in spite of the common history, language, geography borders and religionSpain: Napes and SicilyPapal State across the centerVenice remains an independent RepublicNorth divided among small principalitiesThe Council of Trent set guidelines for Church art against the arcane, lascivious, worldly trends of the Mannerists.CT: call for a simplicity and chase subject matter to rouse a very Catholic piety in the face of the Protestant Reformation.
5Major goal of CR embellish churches to reassert the power and majesty of the Catholic faith and Papacy.Renaissance ideal of the central plan churches continued to be used for the shrines of saints.CR need churches with long wide naves to accommodate large congregations to hear inspiring sermons and participate in Mass.16th century decoration of churches were relatively austere 17th and 18th favored opulence, theatrical and spectacular effects.50 years after Michelangelo returned St. P’s to Bramante's original Greek cross, central plan Pope Paul V Borghese commissioned Carlo Maderno to provide church with a longer nave and a new façade.Maderno’s façade steps out in three progressively projecting planes, from the corners to the doorways flanking the central entranceColossal orders connecting the firs and second stories ar flat pilastersMaderno died in 1629Gian Lorenzo Bernini.Urban VII 1623 commissions Bernin to design the ENORMOUS Baldachin over the high altarSt. Peter's Basilica and Piazza, Vatican, Rome. Carlo Maderno, façade, 1607–1626; Gianlorenzo Bernini, piazza design, c. 1656–1657.
6Gianlorenzo Bernini. Baldacchino. 1624–1633. Height approx. 100’. Gianlorenzo Bernini. Chair of St. Petter Height approx. 100’.100 ft high and exemplifies the Baroque objective of a multimedia work, combining architecture and sculptureColumns symbolize the union of Christianity and its Jewish tradition - vine of the Eucharist climbing the twisted columns associated with the Temple of Solomon.Toe by orb and crossAngels and putti decorate entablatureJung with tasseled panels imitation a cloth canopy.Chair of St. Peter’s. Church’s response to the Reformation.Holy Spirit a s dove gilding reflect the light back to the window creating a dazzling ethereal effects a mystic’s vision.Gianlorenzo Bernini. Baldacchino. 1624–1633. Height approx. 100’.
7Gianlorenzo Bernini. David. 1623. Height 5’ 7”. Still able to accept commission outside his work as the Vatican’s architect.For the Pope’s nephewNew type of 3-d compositionIntruding forcefully into the viewer’s spaceDonatello: young, cocky, victoriousMichelangelo: Pensive, contemplating what lies aheadBernini: Mature, determined, activeIncorporates space around them, viewer becomes part of the action.Gianlorenzo Bernini. David Height 5’ 7”.
8Gianlorenzo Bernini. Pluto and Proserpina. 1621. Height 5’ 7”. he Rape of Proserpina is a large Baroque marble sculptural group by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini executed between 1621 and Bernini was only 23 years old at its completion. It depicts Proserpina being seized and taken to the underworld by Pluto, depicting "rape" in its archaic meaning of "kidnapping".The twisted contrapposto or figura serpentinata pose is reminiscent of Mannerism, and allows the simultaneous depiction of the abduction (as seen from the left, with Pluto striding to grasp her), the arrival in the underworld (as seen from the front, he appears triumphantly bearing his trophy in his arms) and her prayer to her mother Ceres to return to the real world 6 months a year (as seen from the right, with Proserpina's tears, the wind blowing her hair, and Cerberus barking). Pushing against Pluto's face Proserpina's hand creases his skin, while his fingers sink into the flesh of his victim. Proserpina’s lips are slightly opened, as if she were screaming and begging for help. Upon closer examination, one would notice the delicately crafted marble tears that look as though they are dripping down her face.Bernini's principal patron Scipione Borghese funded it but then gave it to Cardinal Ludovisi in 1622, who took it to his villa. It remained there until 1908, when the Italian state purchased it and returned it to the Galleria Borghese.Gianlorenzo Bernini. Pluto and Proserpina Height 5’ 7”.
9How does Bernini’s St. Theresa personify the Baroque style of 17th century Italy? Decoration of the funerary chapel of the Venetian cardinal Federigo CornaroChurch of Santa Maria della Vittoria designed by Maderno (same architect that redesigned the St. Peters)St. Theresa canonized 20 years earlier.Mystic described her body pierced repeatedly by an arrow from God. Incredible pain, and ectasty.Clouds made from stucco: moistened marble dust and lime.Hidden pedestal accentuates sense of floatingHidden light source creates mystical setting.Broken pediment and entablatureMulticolored marble.Viewers 6 cardinals of the Cornaro family. Informal and naturalTwo read from their prayer bookOthers exclaim at the miracleOn leans out to look at some one entering… us?Gianlorenzo Bernini. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria Della Vittoria, Rome. 1642–1652.
10Intersection of two wide avenues fountains mare each corner. Trinitarians deiced to build new church.Borromini a nephew of MadernoWorked under BerniniCompleted to his design after his death.Narrow piece of landElongated central plan with undulating wallsRobust pairs of columnsMassive entablature over which oval dome appears to float holy spirit hovers in climax of geometry: ovals, octagons, and circlesTriangle the symbol of the TrinityAudaciousUndulating, sculpture filled screenDeep concave and convex nichesFaçade strong vertical thrustFrancesco Borromini. Façade, Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. 1638–1667.
11Francesco Borromini. Plan of the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. 1638–1667.
12Abandoned modular system used by every architect since Brunelleschi Abandoned modular system used by every architect since Brunelleschi. IN favor of overriding geometric theme. Much like a gothic architect might.Complex rational shapesIgnored in RomeWidely imitate in northern Italy ad beyond the alps.Francesco Borromini. View Into the Dome of the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. 1638–1667.
13Painting Italy followed one of two principals Ordered classicism of the Carracci familyDramatic naturalism of CaravaggioBoth from northern Italy.Both schooled in northern Italian Renaissance traditions with its emphasis on chiaroscuro and Venetian colors and sfumato.The Carracci rejected artifice of the Mannerist and fused northern roots with central Roman insistence on line and compositional structure, figural solidity: ie Raphael and MichelangeloCaravaggio satisfied the need for Baroque demand for drama and clarity developing realism in a powerful new direction. Painted people he saw in he world around himWorked directly form models without elaborate drawings and compositional notesClaimed to ignore the influence of the great masters focusing on immediacy and invention.
14Brothers Agostion and Annbale and a cousin Ludovico Reevaluated of the high Renaissance masters attracted interestFounded an art academyStudents drew from live models and studied art theory, with emphasis on accurate drawing, complex figure compositions and complicated narrative in both oil and fresco.The academy had a dramatic impact on art education and theoryAnnibale hired to decorate Cardinal Farnese’s principal rooms at his family immense palace in RomeTo celebrated the wedding of Duck Ranuccio Farnese of Parma to the niece of the popeTriumph of Bacchus an Ariadne celebrated B’s love of A.Combines northern Italian tradition of ceiling painting of Mantenga and Correggio with classical heritage of Rome.Complex them using illusionistic devices to create multiple levels of reality.: imitation of gold-framed easel paintings appear to rest on cornices.Many ideas inspired by Michelangelo’s Sistine ceiling. Heroic muscular drawn with prices anatomical accuracies. Bu no with Michelangelo's cool illumination and intellectual detachmentSeems buoyant with optimism and engagement.Annibale Carracci. Ceiling of Gallery, Palazzo Farnese, Rome –1601. Approx. 68’ × 21’.
15Caravaggio. Bacchus. 1595–1596. 37 × 33 1/2”. Michelangelo Merisi known for his family’s home town in Lombardy.Introduces frank realism and dramatic theatrical lighting and gesture.Brought an interest and specialization in still life painting when he arrived in Rome from Milan.Continued to paint still-lifes but also began to include half length figures with them.Painted what he saw: Farmers tan, dirt under his nails…Provocative, erotic Androgynous,Juxtaposition: youth and rotting fruit.Avoid sensual pleasures? Or get them while you can?After 1600 most of his commissions religious, met with mixed reviews.Early critic: “omen of the ruin and demise of painting … because he painted with “nothing but nature before him, which he simply copied in his amazing wayOthers recognized his a a great innovator dealing with religious subject directly and dramaticallyIntensely observed figures, poses and expression with strong contrasting effects of light and color.Caravaggio. Bacchus. 1595– × 33 1/2”.
16Produced large canvases in oil in his studio placed later in situ. Only a few installations survived.One these intact installationsHis earliest religious commissions in Rome.(Matteo Cointrel) Patron’s Patron SaintCalling of St. Matthew and the Martyrdom of St. Matthew on right. Installed 1600.Was supposed to show saint rising form his seat to follow Christ.Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi Dei Francesi. Paintings by Caravaggio 1599–1602.
17Video. Marked by mystery not clarity, which was highly encouraged by counter reformation. 1602 commission of St. with angelic symbol writing his gospel.First painting was rejected the clergy considered his render unacceptably crude and commonCross legged pose uncouth an unnecessarily revealingFleshy angel sidles cozily up the saint just too risqué inconstant with CT guidelinesHad to panted a second more noble Matthew with a more distant angel.The rejected version was snapped up by a collector who paid for the replacement. Was destroyed I the during the bombing of Berlin.Caravaggio. The Calling of St. Matthew. 1599– ’ 7 1/2" × 11’ 2”.
18Caravaggio. The Conversion of St. Paul. c. 1601. 7’ 6" × 5’ 8”. TenebrismStrong contrast effects of light and colorKnowledge of Lombard painting where the influence of Leonardo was strongTenebrism: forms emerge fro a dark background into a strong light.This is on e of two paintings commissioned for a chapel the other destroyedFirs pair rejectedSecond version conversion direct and simple at a pivotal momentNo indication of a heavenly apparition only Paul's responseNo clear physical settingDespite the great esteem held by some especially the younger generation of artists his violent temper repeatedly got him into trouble.Frequently arrestedKilled a man in a duel over a tennis match.Died shortly before his 39th.Caravaggio. The Conversion of St. Paul. c ’ 6" × 5’ 8”.
19Artemisia Gentileschi. Susannah and the Elders. 1610. 67 × 47 5/8”. One of Caravaggio’s most brilliant Italian followersHad an international reputation and helped spread Caravaggesque style beyond Rome.Worked under her father Orzaio1616 moved to Rome worked for grand Duke of TuscanyThis was painted when she was till part of her fathers studio.Perhaps a intentional masterpiece.17 years of age.The lecherous older men threaten to claim they saw her engaged in a lover’s tryst unless she had sex with them. She refuses and she is sentenced to death. Saved by Daniel (of Daniel in the lions Den)Most males who paint the scene emphasized Susan’s sexual allure and the elder’s lustful stares. She emphasized S.’s vulnerability.Excluded from using male models she clearly saw unclothed women an created one of the first truly lifelike female nudes in the European tradition.Artemisia Gentileschi. Susannah and the Elders × 47 5/8”.
2120 years after Susan.claims her profession and claims her place in it.Artemisia Gentileschi. Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting × 29”.
22Theatricality and intricacy and the opening of the space reaches an apogee in Baroque ceiling decoration painting, stucco and sculptures.Grand illusionistic projectsDrama of an immeasurable heaven to achieve an explosion into the heavens.Meticulous perspective usually requiring that it be viewed fro a specific spotBecause it required such careful calculations figure painters usually had specialists in quadrutura paint the architectural frame for them.This is in the vault of the Jesuit church of Il Gesu.renovated the austere interior a century after first built. Commissioned a religious allegory to cover the naves’ plain ceiling.Fusing sculpture and painting to eliminate any appearance of architectural division.Difficult to sort the carved figures from the painted imitations.Some paintings are on real planes that extend over the architectural framework. Unifying painting, sculpture and architecture; hall mark of Baroque ceiling painting.Gaulli worked in his youth with BerniniGiovanni Battista Gaulli. The Triumph of the Name of Jesus and Fall of the Damned. 1672–85.
23SpainPhilip II the son of Charles V inherits: Spain, the Americas, the Netherlands, Burgundy , Milan and the kingdom of Naples an Sicily. His brother Ferdinand gets Germany and Austria.Spanish Habsburg kings Phillip III and Phillip Iv and Charles II reigned over a weakening empireRepeated local rebellionsPortugal reestablished independence in 1648.Naples remained in a constant state of UnrestYears war ends the Netherlands gained their independenceAmsterdam grows into one of the wealthiest cities in EuropeDutch republic a serious threat to Spain trade and Colonial possessions.Flanders remained under Spain's then Austrian rules.What had seemed as a constant flow of gold and sliver from the Americas lessenedAs the tried to defend the RCC their empire on all fronts they squandered their slowly diminishing resourcesDespite all this this was Spain’s golden age of painting.
24Late 16tth. Spanish painters develop a interest in artfully arranged objects with and intense attention to detailOne of the earliest painters of pure still lifes in Spain.Irregularly curved shapes of fruits and vegetables against angular geometryUnclear why they have been arranged this wayStrong light against an impenetrable darknessHighly artificial arrangement with strikingly life like forms.Juan Sánchez Cotán. Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber. c /8 × 33 1/4”.
25Francisco de Zurbarán. St. Serapion. 1628. 47 1/2 × 40 3/4”. Aiming to draw people back to Catholicism commissioned portrayal of heroic martyrs who endured shocking tormentsUnder the influence of the Caravaggesque taste prevalent in SevilleOwn distinctive style incorporated an interest in abstract design with careful attention to detail.Carefully arranged patterns of highlight sand varying depth of shadows.only colors are the red and gold insignia.Francisco de Zurbarán. St. Serapion /2 × 40 3/4”.
26Diego Velázquez. Water Carrier of Seville. c. 1619. 41 1/2 × 31 1/2”. Consider the greatest painter to emerge fro the Carvaggesque school of Seville shared Zurbaran’s fascination with objectsBegan career a a tenebrist and naturalistEarly in his career painted scenes set in taverns and markets, emphasized still-lifes and various foods and utensils. Surfaces and texturesDevoted to studying and sketching from life.Diego Velázquez. Water Carrier of Seville. c /2 × 31 1/2”.
271623 moved to MadridBecame court painter to Phillip IVHeld to deathStudied, traveled, went on diplomatic missions, studied in Italy, which showed in his later paintings.His most striking and certainly his most enigmatic work10 feet tall and 9 feet widePainted near the end of his life.A continues challenge to the viewer and has stimulated debate among art historians.Mirror in back ground a clever reference to JvE’s Double Portrait of Giovanni…. Part the Spanish royal collection at the time.Identifiable portraits.Method: minimum of under-drawing, building forms of loosely applied paint finish surface with dashes of highlights in white, lemon yellow, and pale orangeRather than using light to model volumes tried to depict the optical properties of light reflecting form surfaces.Order of Santiago on his chest added later, keys of the palace tucked into his sash.Diego Velázquez. Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) ’ 5" × 9’ 1/2”.
2817th century Spanish architects embraced lavish decoration Profusion of ornament swept back into fashionHuge altarpiecesPortals and main doors.In 17th century St. James position as the patron saint of Spain was challenged by St. Theresa of Avila and then by supporters of St. Michael St. Joseph and other popular saints.The leaders of Santiago de Compostela need to reestablish their primacy and to revitalize the yearly pilgrimage to the city.Renewed interest in pilgrimage to shrines of saints brought an influx of pilgrims and financial security to the city and the Church.Unparalleled splendor to be added to the 12th century pilgrimage church.South tower and later a north tower.West Façade, Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. South tower 1667–1680; north tower and central block finished mid-18th century by Fernando de Casas y Nóvoas.