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Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA

2 Bullet Points p. 699 Read pgs

3 Ch 20 Sec 1 I can understand how the U.S. acquired new territory and expanded trade in the Asia-Pacific region

4 Ch. 20 Sec 1 Eyes on the Pacific Manifest Destiny – U.S. should have borders from Atlantic to Pacific ??? Why not go further west? Americans did just that

5 Japan Mid 1800’s Americans wanted trade with Japan Japan was a closed country

6 Japan What they didn’t have was a strong navy Pres. Millard Fillmore sends Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his fleet – 1553 Japanese thought they were ready

7 Japan Perry arrives with ships Gives Japanese letter from President and leaves Were the Japanese impressed?

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9 Japan Yes they were 1 year later Perry returns Japan grants America trading rights Changes Japan forever

10 Alaska 1867 – Alaska belonged to Russia Russia wants American influence, not British 1869 – Russia sells for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) Many in U.S. against sale Did not know of riches

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12 U.S. Expansion America was isolationist (avoid other countries) Europeans were imperialists (empire building) Late 1800’s, U.S. wanted territories

13 Turner Thesis Western frontier has been conquered No more expansion Was he ever wrong!!!

14 Economic Growth U.S. has powerful economy U.S. did not want 1. To be denied raw materials 2. To be denied global market

15 Economic Growth Key is a strong navy Control the seas – (Alfred T. Mahan)

16 From this

17 To this

18 To This

19 Other Reasons for Expansion Protect overseas trade Spread American values

20 Samoa U.S. Navy and American shipping companies needed a refueling stop in Pacific Germany and Britain also wanted the same Almost went to war 1899, Germany and U.S. divided control

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22 Hawaii After 1820, American sugar planters set up plantations Planters gained power and forced king to give them power in government When king died, Queen tried to limit power

23 Hawaii With help of U.S. Marines, planters seized control of Islands (1893) Congress annexed Hawaii in 1898

24 China Late 1800’s, war weakens China European powers & Japan try to divide up China

25 China U.S. fears exclusion U.S. wants, “Open Door” policy WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? The right of all nations to trade with China

26 China – Boxer Rebellion Chinese object – form secret group This group – The Boxers – attacked foreigners Chinese gov’t. helped

27 China U.S. and other countries send 18,000 troops Defeat Boxers, kill Chinese and loot Beijing

28 China U.S. insists on Open Door policy Insists China not be carved up China survived but with foreign influence

29 Bullet points p. 699Read pgs

30 Ch 20 Sec 2 The Spanish – American War I can understand the causes and effects of the Spanish – American War

31 Cuba 90 miles south of Florida Controlled by Spain since 1492 Cubans revolt 1868

32 Cuba First revolt failed 2 nd revolt, 1895 People put in reconcentration camps 200,000 die

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34 José Martí Cuban poet Inspired Cubans from exile in U.S. Got to Cuba but killed

35 American Reaction Americans sympathetic Want to oust Spanish Protect American investments in Cuba 50 mil. Rice, sugar, RR’s, iron mines Presidents Cleveland and McKinley said NO intervention

36 U.S. Press U.S. Newspapers urged intervention William R. Hearst of New York Journal one of the worst

37 Remember the Maine 1898 – Fighting in the streets of Havana, Cuba President McKinley sent U.S. Battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American interests

38 Remember the Maine With this big battleship in the harbor, what could possibly go wrong at 9:40 PM on Feb. 15, 1898?

39 Remember the Maine To Hell with Spain Press and public blame Spanish Cause of the explosion still unknown Spanish Naval mine Sunk by Navy to provoke war Fire in coal bunker

40 WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! Asst. Secretary of Navy T. Roosevelt thinks Congress will declare war Sent Adm. Dewey to Spanish held Philippine Islands

41 WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! April 20, 1898, Congress declares war on Spain May 1, 1898, Dewey attacks Spanish fleet in Philippines. Sinks entire squadron No American losses

42 War in Cuba TR (who is that?????) Gave up his job as Asst. Sec. of the Navy Formed Cavalry group, the Rough Riders Poorly trained, poorly equipped

43 Rough Riders July 1, 1898 TR leads men up San Juan Hill in Santiago Cuba Black, white, it didn’t matter

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47 White regiments, black regiments... Fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color... And mindful only of their common duty as Americans. First Lt. John J. Pershing

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49 An American Empire Dec – Spain surrenders Cuba independent Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam and Wake Islands to U.S. U.S. pays $20 million

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51 Debate on Treaty YES U.S. has important naval bases Expands business Spread democracy NO Violates Declaration Self gov’t denied Risk of future wars

52 Outcome Senate approves treaty,, Feb. 1899

53 Governing Filipinos try for freedom Former U.S. allies in Philippines fight U.S. 3 year war 4,000 Americans dead 20,000 Filipinos dead Philippines not free until 1946

54 Governing Caribbean Puerto Rico a territory with a U.S. governor People become U.S. citizens U.S. developed economy and education

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56 Governing Caribbean Cuba becomes U.S. protectorate  Cuba cannot make treaties  Cannot borrow money  U.S can intervene in Cuban affairs  Naval base at Guantanamo

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58 Anopheles Stephensi Aedes Aegypti

59 WHY ARE THESE 2 BUGS IMPORTANT? They almost delayed one of the worlds most important projects. WHAT WAS THAT PROJECT?

60 PANAMA CANAL

61 Bullet Points p. 699Read pgs

62 Ch 20 Sec 3 The U.S. & Latin America I can understand how the U.S. used the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention in Latin America

63 Monroe Doctrine Named after President Monroe WHAT DID IT SAY? 1.European countries stay out of the Americas 2.We will stay out of European affairs 3.If you don’t, there will be trouble

64 1898 The Navy had to send this boat

65 From Here

66 To Here

67 But to do it, they had to go around this A distance of 14,000 miles and it took 2 months

68 What do we need? A short easily defensible route

69 Isthmus of Panama What is an isthmus? A narrow strip of land joining two larger area of land

70 Isthmus of Panama Where is it?

71 1902 Panama was a province of Columbia TR offered to rent for $10 mil now and ¼ mil yearly Columbia wanted more and said NO

72 Teddy don’t like that!!

73 So, what can he do??? Steal it from Columbia

74 Grand Theft Country TR knew Panamanians did not like Columbia Talked Panamanian leaders into a revolt Sent gunboats to stop Columbian navy U.S. recognized Panamanian sovereignty

75 Gun Boat Diplomacy

76 Grand theft Country U.S. signs deal with Panama Still can’t start canal until health problems solved

77 Disease Most people thought that yellow fever and malaria were spread by bad air MAL = bad ARIA = air Two doctors found that it was spread by mosquitoes WHAT DO WE DO?

78 DISEASE Kill the skeeters HOW? Drain the swamps and clear the areas where the insects breed

79 The Big Ditch 3 major jobs 1. Cut through a mountain 2. Dam a river to create a lake 3. Erect the canal’s locks

80 The Mountain 9 mile ditch through the Cordillera Mountains Called the Gaillard cut

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88 THE BIG STICK

89 WHY TR claimed the U.S. to be the leader in the Americas Prevent European nations from becoming too powerful in the Americas

90 Roosevelt Corollary When U.S. neighbors get into trouble with Europe, the U.S. can use an “INTERNATIONAL POLICE POWER” and get involved.

91 Example European nations wanted to use military force to collect debts owed by Dominican Republic

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93 Corollary In Action TR sent Marines to Dominican Republic and took over finances

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95 Dollar Diplomacy TR out, Taft in. Economic ties best way to influence other countries U.S. companies invest in Latin America BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THINGS GO WRONG?

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99 A New President Wilson Support democracy Put to the test Mexicans overthrew dictator Resulted in Civil War

100 1914 While trying to refuel a boat, a dispute arose between Mexican soldiers and U.S. sailors Sailors taken prisoner but released U.S. invaded Mexico at Vera Cruz

101 1916 Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa attacks U.S. town of Columbus NM Retaliation for arms dealer selling guns to Villa’s enemy Burns town U.S. responds

102 U.S. sends army to track down Villa U.S. General Pershing tracks Villa for 11 months but cannot capture U.S. withdraws


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