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Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA
Bullet Points p. 699 Read pgs
Ch 20 Sec 1 I can understand how the U.S. acquired new territory and expanded trade in the Asia-Pacific region
Ch. 20 Sec 1 Eyes on the Pacific Manifest Destiny – U.S. should have borders from Atlantic to Pacific ??? Why not go further west? Americans did just that
Japan Mid 1800’s Americans wanted trade with Japan Japan was a closed country
Japan What they didn’t have was a strong navy Pres. Millard Fillmore sends Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his fleet – 1553 Japanese thought they were ready
Japan Perry arrives with ships Gives Japanese letter from President and leaves Were the Japanese impressed?
Japan Yes they were 1 year later Perry returns Japan grants America trading rights Changes Japan forever
Alaska 1867 – Alaska belonged to Russia Russia wants American influence, not British 1869 – Russia sells for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) Many in U.S. against sale Did not know of riches
U.S. Expansion America was isolationist (avoid other countries) Europeans were imperialists (empire building) Late 1800’s, U.S. wanted territories
Turner Thesis Western frontier has been conquered No more expansion Was he ever wrong!!!
Economic Growth U.S. has powerful economy U.S. did not want 1. To be denied raw materials 2. To be denied global market
Economic Growth Key is a strong navy Control the seas – (Alfred T. Mahan)
Other Reasons for Expansion Protect overseas trade Spread American values
Samoa U.S. Navy and American shipping companies needed a refueling stop in Pacific Germany and Britain also wanted the same Almost went to war 1899, Germany and U.S. divided control
Hawaii After 1820, American sugar planters set up plantations Planters gained power and forced king to give them power in government When king died, Queen tried to limit power
Hawaii With help of U.S. Marines, planters seized control of Islands (1893) Congress annexed Hawaii in 1898
China Late 1800’s, war weakens China European powers & Japan try to divide up China
China U.S. fears exclusion U.S. wants, “Open Door” policy WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? The right of all nations to trade with China
China – Boxer Rebellion Chinese object – form secret group This group – The Boxers – attacked foreigners Chinese gov’t. helped
China U.S. and other countries send 18,000 troops Defeat Boxers, kill Chinese and loot Beijing
China U.S. insists on Open Door policy Insists China not be carved up China survived but with foreign influence
Bullet points p. 699Read pgs
Ch 20 Sec 2 The Spanish – American War I can understand the causes and effects of the Spanish – American War
Cuba 90 miles south of Florida Controlled by Spain since 1492 Cubans revolt 1868
Cuba First revolt failed 2 nd revolt, 1895 People put in reconcentration camps 200,000 die
José Martí Cuban poet Inspired Cubans from exile in U.S. Got to Cuba but killed
American Reaction Americans sympathetic Want to oust Spanish Protect American investments in Cuba 50 mil. Rice, sugar, RR’s, iron mines Presidents Cleveland and McKinley said NO intervention
U.S. Press U.S. Newspapers urged intervention William R. Hearst of New York Journal one of the worst
Remember the Maine 1898 – Fighting in the streets of Havana, Cuba President McKinley sent U.S. Battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American interests
Remember the Maine With this big battleship in the harbor, what could possibly go wrong at 9:40 PM on Feb. 15, 1898?
Remember the Maine To Hell with Spain Press and public blame Spanish Cause of the explosion still unknown Spanish Naval mine Sunk by Navy to provoke war Fire in coal bunker
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! Asst. Secretary of Navy T. Roosevelt thinks Congress will declare war Sent Adm. Dewey to Spanish held Philippine Islands
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! April 20, 1898, Congress declares war on Spain May 1, 1898, Dewey attacks Spanish fleet in Philippines. Sinks entire squadron No American losses
War in Cuba TR (who is that?????) Gave up his job as Asst. Sec. of the Navy Formed Cavalry group, the Rough Riders Poorly trained, poorly equipped
Rough Riders July 1, 1898 TR leads men up San Juan Hill in Santiago Cuba Black, white, it didn’t matter
White regiments, black regiments... Fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color... And mindful only of their common duty as Americans. First Lt. John J. Pershing
An American Empire Dec – Spain surrenders Cuba independent Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam and Wake Islands to U.S. U.S. pays $20 million
Debate on Treaty YES U.S. has important naval bases Expands business Spread democracy NO Violates Declaration Self gov’t denied Risk of future wars
Outcome Senate approves treaty,, Feb. 1899
Governing Filipinos try for freedom Former U.S. allies in Philippines fight U.S. 3 year war 4,000 Americans dead 20,000 Filipinos dead Philippines not free until 1946
Governing Caribbean Puerto Rico a territory with a U.S. governor People become U.S. citizens U.S. developed economy and education
Governing Caribbean Cuba becomes U.S. protectorate Cuba cannot make treaties Cannot borrow money U.S can intervene in Cuban affairs Naval base at Guantanamo
Anopheles Stephensi Aedes Aegypti
WHY ARE THESE 2 BUGS IMPORTANT? They almost delayed one of the worlds most important projects. WHAT WAS THAT PROJECT?
Bullet Points p. 699Read pgs
Ch 20 Sec 3 The U.S. & Latin America I can understand how the U.S. used the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention in Latin America
Monroe Doctrine Named after President Monroe WHAT DID IT SAY? 1.European countries stay out of the Americas 2.We will stay out of European affairs 3.If you don’t, there will be trouble
1898 The Navy had to send this boat
But to do it, they had to go around this A distance of 14,000 miles and it took 2 months
What do we need? A short easily defensible route
Isthmus of Panama What is an isthmus? A narrow strip of land joining two larger area of land
Isthmus of Panama Where is it?
1902 Panama was a province of Columbia TR offered to rent for $10 mil now and ¼ mil yearly Columbia wanted more and said NO
Teddy don’t like that!!
So, what can he do??? Steal it from Columbia
Grand Theft Country TR knew Panamanians did not like Columbia Talked Panamanian leaders into a revolt Sent gunboats to stop Columbian navy U.S. recognized Panamanian sovereignty
Gun Boat Diplomacy
Grand theft Country U.S. signs deal with Panama Still can’t start canal until health problems solved
Disease Most people thought that yellow fever and malaria were spread by bad air MAL = bad ARIA = air Two doctors found that it was spread by mosquitoes WHAT DO WE DO?
DISEASE Kill the skeeters HOW? Drain the swamps and clear the areas where the insects breed
The Big Ditch 3 major jobs 1. Cut through a mountain 2. Dam a river to create a lake 3. Erect the canal’s locks
The Mountain 9 mile ditch through the Cordillera Mountains Called the Gaillard cut
THE BIG STICK
WHY TR claimed the U.S. to be the leader in the Americas Prevent European nations from becoming too powerful in the Americas
Roosevelt Corollary When U.S. neighbors get into trouble with Europe, the U.S. can use an “INTERNATIONAL POLICE POWER” and get involved.
Example European nations wanted to use military force to collect debts owed by Dominican Republic
Corollary In Action TR sent Marines to Dominican Republic and took over finances
Dollar Diplomacy TR out, Taft in. Economic ties best way to influence other countries U.S. companies invest in Latin America BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THINGS GO WRONG?
A New President Wilson Support democracy Put to the test Mexicans overthrew dictator Resulted in Civil War
1914 While trying to refuel a boat, a dispute arose between Mexican soldiers and U.S. sailors Sailors taken prisoner but released U.S. invaded Mexico at Vera Cruz
1916 Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa attacks U.S. town of Columbus NM Retaliation for arms dealer selling guns to Villa’s enemy Burns town U.S. responds
U.S. sends army to track down Villa U.S. General Pershing tracks Villa for 11 months but cannot capture U.S. withdraws
The Main Idea The United States entered the imperialist competition later than the European powers but soon extended its influence in the Pacific region.
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