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Chapter 20 We Shall Overcome From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Woman carried to police patrol wagon during demonstration in Brooklyn, New York, 1963
We Shall Overcome Civil rights movement protracted struggle with four identifiable, overlapping segments Labor activism Legal activism Nonviolent mass direct action Assertions of black self-determination © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
Introducing Nonviolent Direct Action CORE Activism Core activists influenced by A. J. Muste, who championed Gandhi’s civil disobedience model Organized an integrated group on a “journey of reconciliation” Protesting southern bus companies’ refusal to allow integrated seating required by the Supreme Court’s Morgan decision Goal to educate black communities along route about decision © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
Introducing Nonviolent Direct Action The Journey of Reconciliation Eight black men and eight white men volunteered for trip; practiced nonviolence Black volunteers instructed to take front seats; white volunteers back 12 arrested Demonstrated lack of knowledge of Supreme Court decision Covered extensively by black papers and hardly at all by white papers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
Anatomy of the Montgomery Movement The Role of the Boycott Montgomery boycott first successful example of mass nonviolent resistance Indigenous movement of black people of all classes and ages led by Martin Luther King, Jr. King emphasized nonviolence as guiding credo of moral courage and as a strategy for winning nation’s sympathy Formation of new civil rights organization that relied on religious faith and institutions for backing © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
7 Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after her arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus, December 1955
Anatomy of the Montgomery Movement The Arrest of Rosa Parks Arrested on December 1, 1955 for refusing to give up her seat to a white man In months before arrest, four other black women had been arrested for similar offenses on city’s bus system Parks had two decades of civil rights credentials; her arrest united Montgomery’s black community Idea of boycott quickly translated into action 30,000 leaflets printed announcing rally and boycott © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
Anatomy of the Montgomery Movement The Leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. King selected to lead the boycott efforts coordinated by the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) MIA adopted tactic of nonviolent resistance Rustin became King advisor Made three conservative demands that were rejected by the city Boycott continued; highly planned and strategized Eventually drew national and international attention © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
10 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., speaks at the Holt Street Baptist Church during the Montgomery bus boycott
Anatomy of the Montgomery Movement Victory Four others who had defied segregated seating brought class-action lawsuit challenging constitutionality of city and state segregation ordinances Federal court declared such laws unconstitutional; Supreme Court upheld the judgment Supreme Court ruling ended 381-day boycott by requiring immediate end to city’s segregated bus system © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Movement Milestones New Leaders: James M. Lawson Montgomery bus boycott inspired new civil rights activism James Lawson settled in Nashville, TN, and began teaching philosophy of nonviolence With help of Nashville Christian Leadership Conference, Lawson taught nonviolent direct action protest strategies Would practice how to deal with arrest; violence Made plans for a lunch counter sit-in © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Sit-in participants endure harassment
Movement Milestones The Lunch Counter Sit-In February 1, 1960, “Greensboro Four” staged first successful sit-in at “white only” lunch counter Sparked similar protests by blacks throughout South Two weeks later, Lawson’s Nashville students staged rotating sit-in Protesters usually arrested for trespassing, disorderly conduct, and disobeying police Fervor of sit-ins captured by press and popular culture Max Roach album cover © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
Movement Milestones March 1960 protest movement of students from five historically black colleges Julian Bond “Appeal for Human Rights” Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) – new national, student-led civil rights group © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Album cover from Max Roach’s Freedom Now Suite
Movement Milestones The Albany Movement Protests by black community of Albany, Georgia, under leadership of SNCC, SNLC, and NAACP First use of freedom songs; community singing Albany movement failed Police chief determined to undermine movement; learned from protests in other cities, King’s book James A. Gray, segregationist, chairman of Georgia Democratic Party and friend of President Kennedy Fracture among civil rights groups © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
Movement Milestones Lessons from Albany Importance of “freedom songs” Campaign on all fronts not as effective as targeting specific discriminatory practices one at a time Confirmation of the influential role of the press Birmingham, 1963 Meticulously planned nonviolent assault on Birmingham’s white economic power structure Rev. Fred L Shuttleworth and the ACHR with help of SCLC, MLK © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
Movement Milestones Boycott and mass demonstration began April 3, 1963 during busy Easter season Segregationist police chief Eugene “Bull” Connor, taking cue from Albany, urged police restraint Lost patience; on April 7 protesters attacked with clubs and police dogs On April 10, Birmingham got injunction to end all activities until the “right to demonstrate” was argued in court © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
Movement Milestones Two days later, blacks disobeyed court order Letter from Birmingham Jail MLK’s defense of his involvement in the movement; response to open letter of white clergymen Asked white clergy to take a moral stand Children took active role in Birmingham campaign © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
Movement Milestones Victory Frustrated, Bull Connor unleashed full force on demonstrators Press coverage garnered national sympathy Monetary donations poured in May 10, 1963 formal agreement between city businesses and SCLC Agreement did little to change violent opposition Kennedy administration forced to act; sent federal troops to positions near Birmingham © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
Movement Milestones Freedom Summer 1964 Bring northern white students into South in campaign to register Mississippi’s black voters Bob Moses More than 700 white volunteers Hoped to attract national media attention; promote grassroots movement of blacks Blacks fearful of backlash from interracial fraternization; murder of civil rights workers Registered more than 80,000 by summer’s end © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
Movement Milestones Ultimately failed to unseat racist state party; but Freedom Summer still a success Cultivation of civil rights leaders Freedom schools Brought out-of-state groups of doctors and lawyers to Mississippi © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
Movement Milestones Tragedy and Triumph “Bloody Sunday” – Selma to Montgomery march to protest death of SNCC worker Jimmie Lee Jackson Protesters violently attacked by police; “possemen” Press coverage shocked the world On March 21, demonstrators finally successful President Johnson called Alabama National Guard into federal service 50,000 demonstrators on final day © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 The Selma March
Movement Milestones The Importance of Press Coverage Press coverage key factor in gaining support and sympathy Images of violence against peaceful protesters Made it painful to accept lives cut short: Emmet Till; Medgar Evers; Mississippi civil rights workers; four little girls in Birmingham; MLK; numerous others The “race beat” provided measure of protection for civil rights protestors Officials didn’t want cities to look bad © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
Movement Women Women civil rights activists came from varying backgrounds, vast age ranges Daisy Bates Many women student contributors to SNCC School desegregation and Constance Baker Motley Girls initiators of many school desegregation cases: Arthurine Lucy; Charlayne Hunter Motley won 9 of 10 cases she brought before Supreme Court © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27
Movement Women Voting Rights Campaigns Mississippi voting rights campaign and its advocacy of grassroots participation encouraged local women Ella Baker and Fannie Lou Hamer Ella Baker Favored democratic exchange, loosely structured leadership, commitment to grassroots movement Fannie Lou Hamer Mobilized registration drives despite violence; never lost local focus © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28
Movement Women Septima Clark Questioned disparities between black and white schools; black and white teacher salaries Developed citizenship schools in the South Strength through Religious Faith Many women derived strength from religious faith “Bridge leaders” – link between local community and external organizations Fostered relationships in churches and daily community service © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29
The Northern Side of the Movement Electoral Power Northern black voters’ growing political efficacy Often held balance of power in tight elections Influenced fair employment laws in many states Black congressional members; state and local leadership posts Battling Discrimination Northern blacks faced lack of job opportunity and de facto segregation in school and elsewhere School demonstrations in Chicago and Boston “Walk to Freedom” in Detroit © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30
The Northern Side of the Movement The Problem of Housing Housing discrimination both private practice and public policy Federal Housing Administration racially discriminatory policies Levittown; Stuyvesant Town; Trumball Park Housing for blacks not on their own terms; racial bias persisted Restrictive covenants; violence Harvey Clark © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31
The Northern Side of the Movement In Cities: Substandard Housing and Poor Education Blacks exploited by landlords; paid high rent for substandard housing Cities refused to enforce antibias housing codes Blacks also received inferior education; few job opportunities; and inequality in public services © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government “Rights revolution” required action by all three branches of government: presidential orders; congressional legislation; judicial decisions Civil Rights in the 1950s Anticommunism changed ability of civil rights groups to collaborate Adopted Cold War rhetoric of freedom and democracy Truman © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government Court Victories Legal victories under leadership of Houston and Marshall Warren Court played critical role in upholding constitutionality of civil rights laws Brown; Brown II The Executive Branch Truman executive order integrating armed forces Eisenhower Civil Rights Act of 1957 Desegregation of Central High School © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35 Protesters after the Brown decision
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government Congress Drags Its Feet Congress most resistant branch of government “Southern Manifesto” signed by more than 90 southern members of Congress protested Brown’s usurpation of state power Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed Primarily safeguarded black voting rights; created United States Commission on Civil Rights Inadequate enforcement © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Role of Civil Rights Advocates Interaction between government and civil rights advocates brought change to nation’s legal system Civil rights strategies created climate that made passage of civil rights legislation possible Smith v. Allwright; Brown Voter registration drives Citizenship schools Protest demonstrations © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 International pressure on federal government; Ghana joined United Nations Work of NAACP lobbyist Clarence Mitchell, Jr Act limited and modest Department of Justice forced to institute suits on case-by-case basis Civil Rights Act of 1960 passed to strengthen 1957 Act Not adequately enforced; but signaled greater federal involvement in civil rights © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Kennedy Administration Emergence of nonviolent protests and rising number of black voters made civil rights burning political issue Racial equality part of both political platforms in 1960 Kennedy slow to tackle issues; had to deal with southern Democratic congressional chairmen Did immediately appoint blacks to high-profile federal positions Became increasingly influenced by civil rights agenda; submitted civil rights legislation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Freedom Rides, May 1961 Set out to challenge segregation laws and practices in bus terminals Met violence; intervention of Justice Department Interstate Commerce Commission ruling Non-segregated seating and terminals Freedom to the Free, centennial of Emancipation Proclamation U.S. Commission on Civil Rights report finding gap between aspirations and actual practices © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Comprehensive civil rights bill submitted by Kennedy to Congress Legislation stalled during summer of 1963 “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom” – 250,000 marchers gathered at Lincoln Memorial Bright spot – ratification of Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawing poll tax in federal elections © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42 “I have a dream.”
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally passed Gave attorney general power to protect against discrimination Required elimination of discrimination in federally assisted programs Created EEOC; Community Relations Service; extended life of the Commission on Civil Rights Required DOE to assist in school desegregation Strong resistance to enforcement Supreme Court upheld constitutionality Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. U.S.; Katzenbach v. McClung © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government The Voting Rights Act of 1965 Johnson recognized weakness in new Act’s voting provision; sent proposal to Congress Congress swiftly passed Voting Rights Act Authorized federal examiners to register black voters Suspended all literacy tests and other devices Political Revolution in the South Southern blacks became political contenders and officeholders © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44
The Landmarks and Limitations of Government Public schools slowly began to desegregate U.S. v. Jefferson County – “the only school desegregation plan that meets constitutional standards is one that works” The Second Reconstruction Riots of 1964–1967 demonstrated that legislation failed to solve deeper, structural problems of racial inequality © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 45
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