2 Question of the DAY Apr 21 EOC REVIEW The oldest fossils that have been found are of single-celled organisms. This suggests that life on EarthA. has become less complex as the atmosphere has changedB. changes in response to mutations but not environmentC. mutates in order to adapt to new environmentsD. has evolved over time from simple to complex organisms
3 DO NOW Apr 21 EOC REVIEWDraw and label a graph to illustrate a change in finch population if the environment changes to favor large beaks.
4 DO NOW ANSWERED Apr 21Recall that this type of change is known as Directional Selection.
5 AGENDA APRIL 21OBJECTIVES: Explain the characteristics used to classify protists.1. EOC REVIEW QUESTIONS2. Begin Chapter 20 Protists3. Review and HOMEWORKGuided Reading PacketDUE WEDNESDAY Apr 23CONTINUE TO REVIEW YOUR NOTES EVERY DAY!!!Combined Chapter Test – DATE TBA
6 20-1: Kingdom Protista Protists are eukaryotes. WHAT FEATURES ARE FOUND IN EUKARYOTES?Nucleus and membrane bound organellesMembers DO NOT belong to Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, or FungiMost are unicellular.A few consist of hundreds or thousands of cells.Macrocystic pyrifera
7 Protists First eukaryotic organisms on Earth were protists 1.5 billion years agoVery diverse group of organismsClassified by the way they obtain nutrition.Animallike protists = HeterotrophsPlantlike protists = Photosynthetic protistsFunguslike protists = Decomposers
8 20-2: Animallike Protists - Protozoans ZooflagellatesSwim using flagellaAbsorb food through cell membraneReproduce asexually by mitosis and cytokinesisGenetically identical cellsSome perform meiosisNew combination of genetic material
9 20-2: Zooflagellates Sarcodines move and feed using pseudopods. Amoeboid movementEngulf food and other cellsStored in food vacuoles until digestedReproduce by mitosis and cytokinesis
10 20-2: Zooflagellates Ciliates use cilia for feeding and movement. Cilia have same internal structure as flagellaParameceumCilia arranged in evenly spaced rowsand bundlesTrichocysts protect the cell from dangerRelease spike-like projections
11 CILIATES Internal Anatomy Cilia sweep food into gullet Macronucleus – Holds working genes for existenceMicronucleus – Contains a reserve copy of genesCilia sweep food into gulletLysosomes digest foodMaintain homeostasis using contractile vacuolesCollect and release waterCan perform ConjugationExchange of micronuclei with other cells
12 QUESTION of the DAY APR 22Viruses are exceptions to the cell theory, but they have some characteristics of living things. What is one of these characteristics?A. They are made up of many specialized cells.B. They contain genetic material.C. They reproduce by mitosis.D. They contain chlorophyll.
13 Which statement best explains the patterns seen in these diagrams? A. The organisms at the end of each branch can be found in the environment today.B. The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes.C. Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.D. These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms.
14 AGENDA APRIL 22OBJECTIVES: Explain the characteristics used to classify protists.1. EOC REVIEW QUESTIONS2. Chapter 20-2 and 20-3 Protists3. Review and HOMEWORKWORK ON GUIDED READING PACKETCONTINUE TO REVIEW YOUR NOTES EVERY DAY!!!Combined Chapter Test – DATE TBA
15 20-2 Animallike Protists and Disease Sporozoans do not move on their ownParasitesMALARIA caused by sporozoan PlasmodiumCarried by female Anopheles mosquitoAfrican Sleeping Sickness caused by trypanosomes.Bite of a tsetse flyDestroy red blood cells, nerve cells, and can lead to a fatal sleep
16 20-3: Plantlike Protists 20-2 Trichonympha produce cellulase. Live in guts of termitesDigest wood20-3 UNICELLULAR ALGAE perform photosynthesis.Contain chlorophyll a, b, and c and accessory pigmentsEuglenophytes have two flagella but no cell wallReddish pigment called eyespot helps them find sunlight
17 20-3: Plantlike Protists Chrysophytes have gold-colored pigments Cell walls contain the carbohydrate PECTINDiatoms produce thin cell walls rich in silicon (Si).Dinoflagellates are often luminescent.Photosynthetic Phytoplankton provide foodALGAL BLOOMS deplete nutrients and oxygen
18 20-4: Red, Brown, Green Algae RED Algae live deep in the oceansContain Phycobilins that absorb blue lightBROWN Algae are multicellularLargest and most complexGREEN Algae are very similar to land plantsCell walls contain celluloseContain Chlorophyll a and bStore food as Starch
19 ALTERNATION of GENERATIONS REFER to FIGURE 20-17 PAGE 513 Normal Living ConditionsUnfavorable Living ConditionsHaploid cells reproduce asexuallyMitosis produces zoosporesZoospores genetically identical to the haploid cell that entered MitosisHaploid cells undergo mitosis but release gametesTwo mating types PLUS + and MINUS –+ and – gametes fuse togetherForm a diploid zygoteBy MEIOSIS, zygote produces 4 haploid cells
20 Uses of ALGAE Source of Food Chemicals produced used in medicines and treatmentsIndustrial uses in plastics, paints, and electronicsResearch uses in AGAR plates
21 20-5 Funguslike Protists Slime Molds recycle organic materials Reproduce asexually and sexuallyCellular slime molds remain distinct and separatedAcellular slime molds fuse together into plasmodialarge cells with many nucleiWater Molds feed on dead/decaying matter