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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 20 PROTISTS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Question of the DAY Apr 21 EOC REVIEW
The oldest fossils that have been found are of single-celled organisms. This suggests that life on Earth A. has become less complex as the atmosphere has changed B. changes in response to mutations but not environment C. mutates in order to adapt to new environments D. has evolved over time from simple to complex organisms

3 DO NOW Apr 21 EOC REVIEW Draw and label a graph to illustrate a change in finch population if the environment changes to favor large beaks.

4 DO NOW ANSWERED Apr 21 Recall that this type of change is known as Directional Selection.

5 AGENDA APRIL 21 OBJECTIVES: Explain the characteristics used to classify protists. 1. EOC REVIEW QUESTIONS 2. Begin Chapter 20 Protists 3. Review and HOMEWORK Guided Reading Packet DUE WEDNESDAY Apr 23 CONTINUE TO REVIEW YOUR NOTES EVERY DAY!!! Combined Chapter Test – DATE TBA

6 20-1: Kingdom Protista Protists are eukaryotes.
WHAT FEATURES ARE FOUND IN EUKARYOTES? Nucleus and membrane bound organelles Members DO NOT belong to Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi Most are unicellular. A few consist of hundreds or thousands of cells. Macrocystic pyrifera

7 Protists First eukaryotic organisms on Earth were protists
1.5 billion years ago Very diverse group of organisms Classified by the way they obtain nutrition. Animallike protists = Heterotrophs Plantlike protists = Photosynthetic protists Funguslike protists = Decomposers

8 20-2: Animallike Protists - Protozoans
Zooflagellates Swim using flagella Absorb food through cell membrane Reproduce asexually by mitosis and cytokinesis Genetically identical cells Some perform meiosis New combination of genetic material

9 20-2: Zooflagellates Sarcodines move and feed using pseudopods.
Amoeboid movement Engulf food and other cells Stored in food vacuoles until digested Reproduce by mitosis and cytokinesis

10 20-2: Zooflagellates Ciliates use cilia for feeding and movement.
Cilia have same internal structure as flagella Parameceum Cilia arranged in evenly spaced rows and bundles Trichocysts protect the cell from danger Release spike-like projections

11 CILIATES Internal Anatomy Cilia sweep food into gullet
Macronucleus – Holds working genes for existence Micronucleus – Contains a reserve copy of genes Cilia sweep food into gullet Lysosomes digest food Maintain homeostasis using contractile vacuoles Collect and release water Can perform Conjugation Exchange of micronuclei with other cells

12 QUESTION of the DAY APR 22 Viruses are exceptions to the cell theory, but they have some characteristics of living things. What is one of these characteristics? A. They are made up of many specialized cells. B. They contain genetic material. C. They reproduce by mitosis. D. They contain chlorophyll.

13 Which statement best explains the patterns seen in these diagrams?
A. The organisms at the end of each branch can be found in the environment today. B. The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes. C. Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out. D. These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms.

14 AGENDA APRIL 22 OBJECTIVES: Explain the characteristics used to classify protists. 1. EOC REVIEW QUESTIONS 2. Chapter 20-2 and 20-3 Protists 3. Review and HOMEWORK WORK ON GUIDED READING PACKET CONTINUE TO REVIEW YOUR NOTES EVERY DAY!!! Combined Chapter Test – DATE TBA

15 20-2 Animallike Protists and Disease
Sporozoans do not move on their own Parasites MALARIA caused by sporozoan Plasmodium Carried by female Anopheles mosquito African Sleeping Sickness caused by trypanosomes. Bite of a tsetse fly Destroy red blood cells, nerve cells, and can lead to a fatal sleep

16 20-3: Plantlike Protists 20-2 Trichonympha produce cellulase.
Live in guts of termites Digest wood 20-3 UNICELLULAR ALGAE perform photosynthesis. Contain chlorophyll a, b, and c and accessory pigments Euglenophytes have two flagella but no cell wall Reddish pigment called eyespot helps them find sunlight

17 20-3: Plantlike Protists Chrysophytes have gold-colored pigments
Cell walls contain the carbohydrate PECTIN Diatoms produce thin cell walls rich in silicon (Si). Dinoflagellates are often luminescent. Photosynthetic Phytoplankton provide food ALGAL BLOOMS deplete nutrients and oxygen

18 20-4: Red, Brown, Green Algae
RED Algae live deep in the oceans Contain Phycobilins that absorb blue light BROWN Algae are multicellular Largest and most complex GREEN Algae are very similar to land plants Cell walls contain cellulose Contain Chlorophyll a and b Store food as Starch

Normal Living Conditions Unfavorable Living Conditions Haploid cells reproduce asexually Mitosis produces zoospores Zoospores genetically identical to the haploid cell that entered Mitosis Haploid cells undergo mitosis but release gametes Two mating types PLUS + and MINUS – + and – gametes fuse together Form a diploid zygote By MEIOSIS, zygote produces 4 haploid cells

20 Uses of ALGAE Source of Food
Chemicals produced used in medicines and treatments Industrial uses in plastics, paints, and electronics Research uses in AGAR plates

21 20-5 Funguslike Protists Slime Molds recycle organic materials
Reproduce asexually and sexually Cellular slime molds remain distinct and separated Acellular slime molds fuse together into plasmodia large cells with many nuclei Water Molds feed on dead/decaying matter

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