2Chapter 20: The New Frontier and the Great Society Objective: To understand the achievements and challenges of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations
3Time covered in this chapter: 1960-1967 John F. Kennedy (D):Lyndon B. Johnson (D):
4Section 2: The New Frontier Why it matters now: Kennedy’s space program continues to generate scientific and engineering advances that benefit AmericansMain idea: While Kennedy had trouble getting his ideas for a New Frontier passed, several goals were achieved
5The Promise of Progress John F. Kennedy had a vision for progress he called the New Frontier; this new frontier referred to:“Uncharted areas of science and space”“Unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice”“Unanswered questions of poverty and surplus”However, JFK had difficulty getting Congress to vote for his proposalsMajority of Congress was made up of conservative Republicans and Southern DemocratsKennedy also lacked a popular mandate: a clear indication that the voters approved of his plans
6-why couldn’t he get his proposals passed by Congress? Why did Kennedy have difficulty achieving many of his New Frontier goals?-why couldn’t he get his proposals passed by Congress?
7Stimulating the Economy Kennedy addressed the economic recession with deficit spending: government spends more than the revenue it getsIncrease defense spending by 20%Extend unemployment insuranceProvide assistance to cities with high unemploymentIncrease the minimum wage to $1.25/hr
8Addressing Poverty Abroad The Peace Corps was created by the Kennedy administrationA program of volunteer assistance to the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaBy 1968, 35,000 volunteers had served in 60 nations around the worldTo show the world that Americans cared; to deter them from turning to the Soviet Union
9Addressing Poverty Abroad Another foreign aid program established by the JFK administration was the Alliance for ProgressOffered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countriesU.S. invested $12 billion in Latin America; in part to deter these countries from picking up Fidel Castro’s revolutionary ideas
11Race to the MoonOctober 1961: Soviet Yuri A. Gagarin became the first human in space. Kennedy saw this as a challenge and decided that America would surpass the Soviets by sending a man to the moonKennedy challenged Americans to put a man in the moon in that decade (60s) [This was achieved on July 20, 1969]Space program was expandedAs result of the space program, universities expanded their science programs; new technologies were developed; space and defense related industries sprung up in the Southern and Western states, creating jobs; education was improved, especially in math and science.
12NASA inventions you might use everyday Scratch-resistant lensesInvisible braces: TPAMichael Phelps’ swimsuitMemory foam
13-think benefits to Americans besides having a man land on the moon What effect did the space program have on other areas of American life?-think benefits to Americans besides having a man land on the moon
14Addressing Domestic Problems In 1962, 20% of Americans lived in povertyDemonstrators began to rise up against segregationJohn F. Kennedy responds:Called for a “national assault on the causes of poverty”Ordered his brother, who was attorney general, to investigate racial injustices in the SouthProposed a civil rights bill and a tax cut of aver $10 billionBy 1963, public opinion polls showed that JFK was losing popularity because of his support of civil rights; still, most American supported their president
15What issues did President Kennedy seem to be focusing on before his assassination?
16Tragedy in DallasPresident Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, TexasHe was shot, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murderIn 1963 the Warren Commission investigated the murder of president KennedyConcluded that Oswald had been working aloneA reinvestigation in 1979 concluded that Oswald was part of a conspiracy