Presentation on theme: "Cold War and the United States. SSUSH 20 Analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States Describe the creation of."— Presentation transcript:
SSUSH 20 Analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U. S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine and the origins and implications of the containment policy. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Describe Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban Missile Crisis Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet Offensive, and growing opposition to the war.
The Start of the Cold War Marshall Plan -financial plan was developed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall. It sparked economic recovery in Western Europe. The 12 billion dollars helped stop the Soviet Union from spreading into Western Europe. The Truman Doctrine- the policy started by helping the countries of Greece and Turkey, stop Soviet expansion into their country. The United States would help any country that opposed communism.
The Start of the Cold War Policy of Containment- the United States would provide aid to any country that opposed communism. The policy was to contain communism in the countries it was already in and not let it expand to surrounding countries. The Iron Curtain- term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between Communist and non- Communist life.
Dividing Germany U. S., Britain, and France merged their zones in 1948 to create an independent West German state. The Soviets responded by blockading land access to Berlin. The U. S. began a massive airlift of supplies that lasted almost a year. (7,000 tons a day) In May 1949 Stalin lifted the blockade, conceding that he could not prevent the creation of West Germany Thus, the creation of East and West Germany.
The Cold War Heats Up: Problems of the Atomic Age The most frightening aspect of the Cold War was the constant threat of nuclear war. Russia detonated its first atom bomb in 1949. Truman ordered construction of the hydrogen bomb. Call for buildup of conventional forces to provide alternative to nuclear war.
The Rise of Communism China- Mao Zedong was the leader of communist China. He had strict control of all aspects of life in China. He made use of force to destroy his enemies and keep control of the country. The Korean War- the war started when communist troops from North Korea invaded democratic South Korea. The United States and the UN aided South Korea, but China became involved when the allied forces invaded North Korea. The war ended July 27, 1953, with Korea being divided along the 38 th parallel.
The Rise of Communism McCarthyism- started by Senator Joseph McCarthy. He held hearings trying to prove that members of the United States government were communist. He held hearings over four years, but was unable to prove his charges, even though he ruined the lives of many people.
McCarthy McCarthy accusing those of communist tendencies Sen. Joseph McCarthy
The Korean War (1950-1953) Since the end of WWII, North Korea and South Korea were divided by the 38 th parallel. Soviet-backed troops from North Korea invaded U. S.-backed South Korea in June 1950
Cuban Revolution Cuban Revolution- (1956) the forces of Fidel Castro defeated the government of Cuba. Castro turned to communism after economic sanctions were applied by the United States. Castro declared himself president for life. Bay of Pigs- (1961) 1,500 Cuban exiles trained and armed by CIA tried to invade Cuba. JFK refused to involve U. S. forces, exiles captured by Castro. U. S. had to give $53 million in food and supplies for release of the exiles. The failure of this operation was an embarrassment to the Kennedy administration and led to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Cuban Missile Crisis- (1962) USSR built missile launch sites in Cuba. JFK responded by blockading Cuba unless USSR withdrew. Compromised by USSR removing their missiles from Cuba and U. S. removing their missiles from Turkey.
Vietnam War Vietnam War was fought from 1957-1975. The U. S. helped the democratic forces of South Vietnam against the communists of North Vietnam supported by the Soviet Union. Tet Offensive- was an offensive in 1968. When the forces of North Vietnam attacked force in South Vietnam. Most of the fighting was in cities in the South. Even though the North was defeated in the battle, it turned American public opinion against the war.
Vietnam War The United States became divided on the Vietnam War. The hawks wanted the country to continue the war and the doves wanted peace. There were 50,000 anti-war demonstrators who marched on Washington, the firing on students at Kent State by the National Guardsmen and Daniel Ellsberg leaking a secret study on the war to the press. These events caused America to leave the war in March of 1973.
Television and the Vietnam War The Tet Offensive made the brutality of the war very visible to Americans. The US Air Force had been bombing South Vietnamese villages for years; during Tet the Air Force was bombing South Vietnamese cities. The ARVN had been killing prisoners for years; during Tet the American television viewing public actually got to watch a prisoner, with his hands bound behind his back, being shot through the head by a South Vietnamese general.
The Tet Offensive made the US news media, and the US public, much less enthusiastic about the war than they had been previously. General Westmoreland did not get the 200,000 additional troops he had requested, and in less than two years the US began withdrawing substantial numbers of troops. In the long run the Tet Offensive was a victory for the Communists, because of the way it reduced the American will to fight.