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Class 20: History of 18 th C Ann T. Orlando 15 March 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Class 20: History of 18 th C Ann T. Orlando 15 March 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class 20: History of 18 th C Ann T. Orlando 15 March 2006

2 England 17 th – 18 th C Charles I reign Cromwell and Puritans rule Restoration of monarchy, Charles II  Persecution of Puritans Glorious Revolution of William and Mary Queen Anne, sister-in-law of William,  War of Spanish Succession  Childless Nearest Protestant was George of Hanover; George I George III reigns  American Revolution

3 George Fox and the Quakers George Fox  Believed something of God in everyone  Everyone should have a direct experience of God; no priests, church or ceremony needed Social implications  No deference shown to any social rank (Quakers keep hats on before all)  No oaths (should always tell truth) Quakers seen as a threat to society  6,000 imprisoned in 1665  William Penn, friend of John Fox, leaves in 1681 to found a Quaker colony in America

4 John Wesley ( ) and the Methodists Born in England, father an Anglican priest While in school at Oxford, founded the ‘Holy Club’, derisively called Methodists because of their method of studying Bible John became an Anglican priest and went to colony of Georgia as missionary  Encountered Moravian brethren (pietists) and deeply influenced by them Upon returns to England, has a spiritual crisis  Experiences saving love of God after reading Luther’s commentary on Romans Starts a movement within Anglicanism; Methodist societies  Social justice  Simplicity in worship and in life  Emphasis on God’s grace acting in a person’s life  Lay educational groups, including women During American Revolution, most Anglican priests were loyalists;  Leave after Revolution  Wesley ordains priests and bishops to go to America to serve community there By time of his death, differences in practices, social justice and American clergy leads to split between Methodists and Anglicans

5 Holy Roman Empire Recall that when Charles V resigns,1555, empire split in two  Austria (including Hungary, southern Catholic German States) under Ferdinand I  Spain and Low Countries under Philip II (husband of Mary Tudor) Wars between Catholic and German parts of Germany; Thirty Years was between France and Germany As a result of Treaty of Westphalia, 1648, ending 30 years War  Affirmation of Treaty of Augsburg  Germany and Central Europe divided into 200 independent pieces For next 100 years many wars over territory and succession  Prussia becomes dominant force among Lutheran German States  Frederick the Great reign

6 Philip Spener ( ) and Pietists Philip Spener was a Lutheran Wrote Pia Diesideria 1675 Extended notion of priesthood of all believers Developed ‘colleges of piety’ small groups of believers; called to a different life Extended emphasis of Scripture over sacraments

7 Febronianism and Josephism Justin Febronius, pseudonym of Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim ( )  Bishop of Trier  State of Church, 1763  Authority in Church is in national council of bishops  Condemned by Clement XIII in 1764 Joseph II of Austria  Adopted much of Febronianism, but applied to a national Catholic church in Austria  Condemned in 1794

8 Spain in 18 th C Recall succession of sons in 17 th C as kings; development of divine right of kings Charles II last of Hapsburgs in Spain, childless But even before Charles II died, England, Dutch Republic, Austria and France had made an agreement as to how to divide Spain and her territories in Europe (Belgium, Italy) and Latin America Charles II decides best way to keep all of Spain together is to anoint Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, as his heir When Charles II dies in 1701, starts war of Spanish Succession  Queen Anne’s War in North America Eventually, Treaty of Utrecht signed in 1713  Philip (Anjou) V becomes King of Spain, reigns until 1746  France and Austria take possession of Italy (south and north of Papal states, respectively)  Foreign trade agreements that greatly favor England and Holland over Spain

9 Quietism Miguel de Molinos; Spiritual Guide, 1675  Advocated complete passivity before God  Contemplation purely spiritual, removal from physical  No action on part of believer Arrested, tried, imprisoned by Inquisition Nonetheless very influential in Spain and France in early 18 th C

10 Papacy Popes 17 th and 18 th C faced with rising ‘national’ Catholicism  Gallicanism (France)  Febronianism (Germany)  Josephism (HRE) Papacy both captive of and in tension with Bourbons of France and Hapsburgs of Spain and Austria  Investiture Controversies  Control of missionary activities Tension between national interests and universal Church interests leads to suppression of Jesuit order in 1773 by Pope Clement XIV

11 Why 18 th C Movement to Suppress Jesuits Loyalty to Papacy over national Churches Envy over social influence  schools,  advisors to kings,  wealth Theological opposition by Jansenists

12 Specific Reasons for Suppression: Missions Concern about enculturation in China  Recall Mateo Ricci in 16 th C policy of adopting some Confucian practices  Accused by Dominicans and Franciscans of tolerating pagan practices  Result: Pope Clement XI condemned Jesuit practice in Ex Illo Die, 1715 Claims by Spain and Portugal that Jesuits were encouraging revolutionary actions among Indians  Recall Jesuits and Dominicans were leaders in protecting Indian rights going back to 16 th C  Result: Jesuits expelled from Paraguay 1750 Financial Collapse of Jesuit Trading Company  Jesuits had monopoly of commerce to/from Martinique  Company went bankrupt in 1764;  Suppressed in France in 1764 which confiscated Jesuit property in France to settle debt All of this leads to Suppression by Clement XIV, 1773  Jesuit General imprisoned  Closing of religious houses and schools  Jesuit priests and brothers either left Church or, usually, joined other communities

13 France 17 th, 18 th C Henry IV reigns  Edict of Nantes, 1598, granting toleration to Protestants Louis XIV (Sun King) reigns  Becomes King at age 5; real power was Cardinal Richelieu Reduced power of nobility, increased power of throne Encouraged Gallicanism  Absolute Monarch, period of stability and strength  Revives (invents) French culture; Versailles center of France  French Church sees itself as a national Church aligned with throne  Revokes Treaty of Nantes, 1685; persecution of Protestants Louis XV  French and Indian War in North America (Seven Year’s War in Europe)  France looses all her North American Colonies Louis XVI reigns  Paris center of France  Initially encourages Enlightenment ideas  Supports American Revolution  Economic depression, leading to Revolution  Executed during Revolution Revolutionary Governments Napoleon


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