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Solution of a 20-Variable 3-SAT Problem on a DNA Computer R. S. Briach, N. Chelyapov, C. Johnson, P. W. K. Rothemund, L. Adleman 발표자 : 문승현

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What is a 3-SAT Problem? A boolean formula is in 3-conjunctive normal form, or 3-CNF, if each clause has exactly three distinct literals. ex) We are asked whether a given boolean formula Φ in 3-CNF is satisfiable.

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What is a 3-SAT Problem? (Cont.) Satisfiability of boolean formulas in 3- conjunctive normal form is NP-complete. The fastest known sequential algorithms require exponential time. Here, a 20-Variable (1,048,576 possible truth assignments) instance of the 3-SAT problem is solved

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20-Variable 3-CNF Boolean Formula Φ

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The unique truth assignment satisfying Φ Φ was designed to have a unique satisfying truth assignment. x 1 =F, x 2 =T, x 3 =F, x 4 =F, x 5 =F, x 6 =F, x 7 =T, x 8 =T, x 9 =F, x 10 =T, x 11 =T, x 12 =T, x 13 =F, x 14 =F, x 15 =T, x 16 =T, x 17 =T, x 18 =F, x 19 =F, x 20 =F This makes the computation as challenging as possible.

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The Library For each of the 20 variables x k (k = 1, … 20), two distinct 15 base “value sequences” were designed: one representing true (T), X T k, and one representing false (F), X F k. ex) X T 1 = TTA CAC CAA TCT CTT X F 1 = CTC CTA CAA TCT CTA

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The Library (Cont.) Each of the 2 20 truth assignments was represented by a “library sequence” of 300 bases consisting of the ordered concatenation of one value sequence for each variable. library strands: single-stranded DNA molecules with library sequences full library: a collection of all library strands duplexed with complements

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The Library (Cont.) Creation of the full library began with the synthesis of two “half libraries,” one for variables x 1 through x 10 (the left half-library) and one for variables x 11 through x 20 (the right half-library). A mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis technique was used to create half libraries.

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The computer

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The computational protocol Step 1: Insert the library module into the hot chamber of the electrophoresis box and the first clause module into the cold chamber of the box. Begin electrophoresis. Library strands encoding truth assignments satisfying the first clause are captured in the capture layer, while library strands encoding nonsatisfying assignments run through the capture layer and continue into the buffer reservoir.

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The computational protocol (Cont.) ex) Φ = (~x 3 or ~x 16 or x 18 ) and … Library strands with sequences X F 3 or X F 16 or X T 18 are retained in the capture layer, whereas those with sequences X T 3 and X T 16 and X F 18 run through.

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The computational protocol (Cont.) Step 2: Remove both modules form the box. Discard the module from the hot chamber. Wash the box and add new buffer. Insert the module from the cold chamber into the hot chamber and the module for the next clause into the cold chamber. Begin electrophoresis.

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The computational protocol (Cont.) Step 3: Repeat Step 2 for each of the remaining 22 clauses. In theory, at the end of Step 3, the final (24 th ) clause module will contain only those library strands which have been captured in all 24 clause modules. Step 4: Extract the answer strands from the final clause module, PCR-amplify, and “read” the answer.

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Analysis The probability of a correct strand surviving th e entire computation : 7.5 * The probability of 1-incorrect strands being ac cidentally retained during the critical capture-r elease step : 3.75 * SAT problems of approximately 30 variables could be solved by the means described here.

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Analysis (Cont.) Time Complexity Silicon-based Computer: O(k·2 n ) DNA Computer: O(n+k) n : # of variables k : # of clauses

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