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Chapter 20 Gender Factors and Exercise. Some gender differences for physiological parameters Height: –men are taller Weight: –men weigh more Body Composition:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Gender Factors and Exercise. Some gender differences for physiological parameters Height: –men are taller Weight: –men weigh more Body Composition:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 Gender Factors and Exercise

2 Some gender differences for physiological parameters Height: –men are taller Weight: –men weigh more Body Composition: –men have less body fat and more fat-free weight VO 2 max: –women tend to have lower VO 2 max values and anaerobic capabilities Strength: –men tend to be stronger than women Strength per unit of muscle mass: –no difference For more information, visit Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training at

3 Gender comparison for various physiological functions

4 Gender comparison for various physiological functions (cont.)

5 Comparison of world records for men and women as of January 2001

6 Comparison of world records for men and women as of January 2001 (cont.)

7 High-intensity exercise and hormonal disturbances in women Delayed menarche Cessation of menstruation Infertility Osteoporosis

8 Exercise and the menstrual cycle Intense training programs can result in amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI). There is no compelling scientific evidence that the menstrual cycle has a general effect on athletic performance. Individual athletes may or may not be affected.

9 The female athlete triad Disordered eating Amenorrhea Osteoporosis

10 Sports associated with the female athlete triad Sports that emphasize low body weight: –gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading Sports that use weight categories: –horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing

11 What should coaches and trainers look for to prevent development of the female athlete triad? Early signs of disordered eating include – excessive weight loss – avoidance of food – use of laxatives and diuretics – vomiting For more information, visit The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad at

12 Exercise and pregnancy Recommended program –any program performed for about 43 minutes a day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no more than 144 beats per minute Normal pregnancy and childbirth should not affect subsequent performance

13 Methods for counteracting the stigma against weight training for women Female role models in the weight room Coeducational coaching staffs Coeducational weight rooms Not communicating lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes

14 Precautions for pregnant women during strength training Be cautious when performing heavy multi- joint free weight exercise after the first trimester. Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.


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