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Rockefeller F. Cooper II, PhD. Student Walden University Ph 8165-2 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold FALL, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Rockefeller F. Cooper II, PhD. Student Walden University Ph 8165-2 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold FALL, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rockefeller F. Cooper II, PhD. Student Walden University Ph Instructor: Dr. Stephen Arnold FALL, 2009

2 The Government of Liberia : Ministry of Health: Public Health Officials Healthcare Givers Monrovia City Hall Corp

3 What is trypanosomiasis? What causes it and how is it transmitted? Who is at risk? What are the symptoms? How do we prevent it? How do we control it? How do we treat it? Understanding the etiology and geography.

4 Introduction African Trypanosomiasis Etiology of African Trypanosomiasis Geographical Distribution Mode of Transmission Symptoms Human African Trypanosomiasis African Animal Trypanosomiasis

5 Prevention A-B-C Method Control use of insecticide traps and screens Treatment References

6 Trypanosomiasis is commonly known as sleeping sickness(Dias, 1999). In cattle and other domestic animals, the disease is referred to as Nagana (Dias,1999). Approximately, 66 million people are victims (Dias,1999). Reference: Dias, J.C.P (1999). The evolution of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 1,

7 Acute and chronic phase. Origin was unknown as caravanners noticed prevailing symptoms of the disease (Dias,1999). The disease infiltrated the western, eastern and southern parts of Africa Colonial masters organized campaigns to prevent and control trypanosomiasis. This effort turned out to be successful due to the use pentamidine, and agronol prevention (Dias,1999). Reference: Dias, J.C.P (1999). The evolution of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 1,

8 Trypanosomiasis was suppressed but reemerged after African countries started to obtain their independence. as they could not maintained the financial burden of suppressing the disease (Dias,1999). Trypanosomiasis causes economical instability due to death infliction on cattle as a result of anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. Disease is caused by: Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. (Grove, 1990). References: Dias, J.C.P (1999). The evolution of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 1, Grove, A.T. (1990). The Changing Geography of Africa. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

9 (2008,Dec 5). African Trypanosomiasis. Retrieved October 7, 2009, from CDC Web site:

10 African Trypanosomiasis: Tsetse flies are between latitude 15 0 North and 20 0 South. Central and West Africa serves as host to the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is the most common causal agent of the disease. In East and Southern Africa, there is the Trypanosoma brucei Rhodesiense. Reference: Legros, D (2002).Treatment for human African Trypanosomiasis-present situation and needs for research and development. The Lancelet Infectious Diseases. 2, Dias, J.C.P (1999). The evolution of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 1,

11 Human African Trypanosomiasis: Glossina are the vectors African Animal Trypanosomiasis: The vectors are Glossina palpalis, Glossina fusca and Glossina morsitans Other vectors are of the genus Tabanus, Haematopota, Chrysops, Liperosia and Stomoxys References: Carlier, Yves (2004). Chagas Disease. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from the chagaspace group Web site: Legros, D (2002).Treatment for human African Trypanosomiasis-present situation and needs for research and development. The Lancelet Infectious Diseases. 2,

12 Human African Trypanosomiasis: Chancre develops from bite. Other manifestations are: fever rash severe headache severe fatigue painful muscles and joints Edema around eyes and hand Winterbottoms sign weight loss Reference: Moore, A (2004). Human African Trypanosomiasis: a reemerging public health threat. Washington, D.C: ASM Press. African Animal Trypanosomiasis: Infertility Abortion Anemia Weight loss Intermittent fever Reference: Grove, A.T. (1990). The Changing Geography of Africa. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

13 A-B-C Method: A wareness of Risk B ite Avoidance C hemoprophylaxis References: Carlier, Yves (2004). Chagas Disease. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from the chagaspace group Web site: Legros, D (2002).Treatment for human African Trypanosomiasis-present situation and needs for research and development. The Lancelet Infectious Diseases. 2,

14 Insecticide Traps and Screen References: (2004, Oct 19). Trypanosomiasis. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: micro.msb.le.ac.uk/224/Trypano.html Moore, A (2004). Human African Trypanosomiasis: a reemerging public health threat. Washington, D.C: ASM Press.

15 DrugsSpeciesPhaseDosageRoute Common side effects Pentamidine isethionate T. gambiense acute 7-10 doses of 4mg/kg per day IMDiarrheaDizzinessHeadache Upset stomach Nausea Suramin sodium T. gambiense T. rhodisiense acute 5mg/kg on the 1st day, 10 on the 3rd and 20 on the 5th,11th, 23rd and 30th IV Renal failure Anaphylactic shocks Signs of neurotoxicity Severe cutaneous reactions Melasoprol T. gambiense T. rhodisiense chronic 3-4 series of 3-4 injections per day IV Reactive encephalopathic syndrome Elfornithine T. gambiense chronic 400mg/kg per day in 4 daily infusions for 1-2 wks. IVDiarrheaPancytopeniaConvulsionHallucination Nifurtimox T. gambiense T. cruzi chronic 400mg/kg per day in 4 daily infusions for 1-2 wks. OralAnorexia Neurological problems

16 The nickname for trypanosomiasis is sleeping sickness. It is an infectious disease that can be transmitted by the tsetse fly. Two phases are involved. Infection is specie specific with regards to the geography. Transmission of the disease into humans and animals are not of the same species as symptoms vastly differs as well. Prevention using the ABC Method as well as traps, screen and insecticide. Different types of drugs.

17 "American Trypanosomiasis of Chagas Disease." Public Health Agency of Canada. 13 June Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from Carlier, Yves (2004). Chagas Disease. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from the chagaspace group Web site: Dias, J.C.P (1999). The evolution of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 1, Dias, J.C.P (1992). Epidemiology of Chagas disease. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from Foreign Animal Diseases Web site: Grove, A.T. (1990). The Changing Geography of Africa. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Legros, D (2002).Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis-present situation and needs for research and development. The Lancelet Infectious Diseases. 2,

18 Mare, C.J. (1998). Foreign animal diseases. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from The Gray Book Web site: Mare, C.J. (1998). In foreign animal diseases. Richmond, VA: United States Animal Health Association. Moore, A (2004). Human African Trypanosomiasis: a reemerging public health threat. Washington, D.C: ASM Press. Stich, A (2002).Human African Trypanosomiasis. BMJ. 325, Trail, J.C.M (1985). Productivity of Boran cattle maintained by chemoprophylaxis under Trypanosomiasis risk. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from Economic trade-offs between milk and meat production Web site: (2004, Oct 19). Trypanosomiasis. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from Public Health Agency of Canada Web site: (2006, Feb 8). West African Trypanosomiasis. Retrieved October 8, 2009, from Division of parasitic Diseases Web site:

19 Cooper, Rockefeller (2007). Prevention and Control of Selective Tropical Diseases. Baltimore, MD: Publish America (2008,June 8). West African Trypanosomiasis. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from CDC Web site: s.htm (2009). Trypanosomiasis, Africa. Retrieved October 7, 2009, from World Health Organization Web site: Kioy, D., & Jannin, N (2004). Human African Trypanosomiasis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2,


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