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Chapter 18 Information Resources Information Systems MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Information Resources Information Systems MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Information Resources Information Systems MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 18-1

2 Information Resources Include: n Specialists –Systems analysts, programmers, database administrators, network specialists, operations personnel, and others n Hardware n Software n Users n Data n Information Represents a large organizational investment! 18-2

3 Information Specialists n Most located in the information services unit n There is a trend to locate specialists throughout the firm n Actual organization chart depends on the needs of the firm 18-3

4 A Functional Organization Structure for Information Services Network manager Manager of computer operations Manager of systems maintenance Manager of systems administration CIO Manager of systems development Systems analyst Systems analyst Operations personnel Database administrators Network specialists Programmers 18-4

5 Information Resources n Most are located in information services n Most that are centrally located are CIO’s responsibility n Those located in functional areas are the responsibility of the area manager 18-5

6 Model of an IRIS n Input subsystems –AIS –Information resources research –Information resources intelligence n Output subsystems –Hardware –Software –Human resources –Data and Information –Integrated resource 18-6

7 A Model of an Information Resources Information System Database Accounting information system Information resources research subsystem Information resources intelligence subsystem Hardware subsystem Software subsystem Human resources subsystem Data and information subsystem Integrated resource subsystem Internal sources Environmental sources Users 18-7

8 Information Resources Research Subsystem n Describes functions involved in special research projects within the firm n Performed by systems analysts interacting with users 18-8

9 Information Resources Intelligence Subsystem n Describes functions involved in gathering information from elements in the firm’s environment –Government –Suppliers –Labor unions –Global community –Customers –Competitors 18-9

10 CIO Responsibilities n Can be top-level executive who participates on executive and MIS steering committee n Contributes to strategic planning for firm and IS functions n Primary source of leadership for: –Achieving and maintaining information quality –Keeping information resources secure –Planning for contingencies –Keeping information costs under control 18-10

11 Achieving Quality Products and Services 1) Identify IS customers –MIS steering committee –Use of a formal system works best 2) Define customer quality needs –Product quality needs –Service quality needs 18-11

12 IS Takes Six Basic Steps in Achieving Quality Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 Identify IS customers Define customer quality needs Establish quality metrics Define quality strategy Implement IS quality programs Monitor IS quality performance 18-12

13 Comparison of How IS and Middle-Level Manager-Users Perceive Product Quality Accurate4.914.884.89 Trusts output4.904.864.87 Works as specified4.754.734.73 User friendly4.504.754.68 Relevant4.594.534.53 Fast response time4.124.554.42 Meets all user needs4.224.484.41 No downtime3.964.254.16 Delivered on time3.804.164.05 Has user documentation4.213.934.01 Can be changed quickly3.844.043.98 Delivered on budget3.453.673.61 Low cost of operation3.193.493.40 Has programmer documentation3.743.233.39 Uses new technology3.043.283.21 Dimension IS User Aggregate Perceived Value 18-13

14 Achieving Quality Products and Services [cont.] 3) Establish quality metrics –Information product quality –Information service quality 4) Define the IS quality strategy –Recruiting and training –User-oriented systems development »Market analysis »Product acceptance analysis »Task analysis »Prototype tests »Operational Systems tests 18-14

15 See Table 18.2 Basic Competencies Expected of IS Job Applicants 1. Concern for effectiveness 2. Initiative 3. Enthusiasm for work 4. Self-confidence 5. Concern with impact 6. Interpersonal astuteness 7. Conceptual thinking 8. Analytical thinking 9. Effective communication 10. Flexibility 18-15

16 Special Attention to Human Factors Ensures That Users’ Needs are Incorporated into Systems Designs 1. Planning phase 2. Analysis phase 3. Design phase 4. Implementation phase 5. Use phase Conduct a market analysis Conduct a product acceptance analysis Conduct a task analysis Conduct prototype tests Conduct operational system tests 18-16

17 Achieving Quality Products and Services [cont.] 5) Implement IS quality programs –Implementation varies with firm 6) Monitor IS quality –Performance of IS specialists and the unit 18-17

18 Security Objectives n Confidentiality n Availability n Integrity Current attention is focused on malicious software such as computer viruses. 18-18

19 Integrity Availability Information Unauthorized use use Unauthorizeddisclosure and theft Unauthorized destruction and denial of service UnauthorizedmodificationSecurity Confidentiality Confidentiality Unauthorized Acts Threaten System Security Objectives 18-19

20 Identification Authentication Authorization User Profiles Access control files Database Software library Audit log Report writer Security reports Users Access Control Functions 18-20

21 Access Control n Identification –What you know (password) or –Where you are (terminal location) n Authentication –What you have (badge) n Authorization –Level of use High-grade threats are from sophisticated computer criminals 18-21

22 Contingency Planning n Emergency plan n Backup plan –Redundancy –Diversity –Mobility »Reciprocal agreement »Hot site »Cold site »Empty shell 18-22

23 Vital Records Plan n Electronic vaulting –Day end backup of files electronically n Remote journaling –Transmission of transaction data as the transactions occur –Used to update remote database in batch form later n Database shadowing –Involves updating of duplicate database at remote site as transaction occur 18-23

24 Cost-Reduction Strategies n Consolidation –Reduces number of separate locations for information resources –Easiest to achieve in terms of information resources –More difficult by end-user computing needs 18-24

25 Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] n Downsizing –Migrating to smaller platforms –Advantage of cost reduction –Advantage of increased productivity with PCs located in user areas –Risk of lost security 18-25

26 Cost-Reduction Strategies [cont.] n Outsourcing –Data entry and simple processing (editing, formatting) –Contract programming –Facilities management (FM) –Systems integration (SI) –Support for maintenance, service, or disaster recovery 18-26

27 Objectives of Outsourcing n Manage costs better n Reduce n Contain n Predict n Obtain relief from systems maintenance so as to concentrate on new system development n Acquire needed expertise 18-27

28 Information Management in Three Pacific Rim Countries n Countries were U.S., Korea, and Mexico n Centralization versus decentralization –Most firms were centralized n CIO participation in strategic business planning –CIO has a long way to go before achieving status as a top-level executive 18-28

29 Information Management in Three Pacific Rim Countries [cont.] n Information systems planning –Most firms have IS plan –CIO is primarily responsible n Sharing information resources with users –In general, CIOs support end-user computing trends 18-29

30 Proactive CIO Strategy 1) CIO must emphasize quality management of the IS resource 2) Achieve strong user ties 3) Strengthen executive ties 4) Assemble an IS management team 5) Assemble staff competent in leading-edge technologies and methodologies 6) Build an IRIS 18-30

31 The Future of the CIO n Business computing is moving from centralized to decentralized computing in terms of: –Equipment –Development –Decision making n CIO Roles –Big brother –Helping hand –Watchdog –Networker 18-31

32 Equipment Big brother A B Helping hand D Network Watchdog C Decentralized Centralized Decentralized Development Decentralized Decision making Centralized Donovan’s Four Stages of Decentralized Computing 18-32

33 Summary n Information resources located in IS are the responsibility of the CIO n IRIS is used to manage information resources within an organization n CIO must: –Promote quality information products and services –Ensure security of IS –Prepare for disasters 18-33

34 Summary [cont.] n IS cost cutting considerations –Consolidation –Downsizing –Outsourcing n CIO can be proactive 18-34

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