Presentation on theme: "Which of the following statements do you most agree with?"— Presentation transcript:
1Which of the following statements do you most agree with? In a democracy, ordinary citizens need only petition for change and the government will respond.(B) Even in a democracy, ordinary citizens have no real means to reform the government other than revolution.(C) Protests are only necessary in non-democratic countries.(D) When all people have the right to vote, reforms will be necessary.
3Opener: Democratic ideals strongly affect Europe and its colonies. The United States expands its borders.Technology and science change daily life.
4Topic 1: Democratic Reform & Activism Spurred by the demands of the people,Great Britain and France underwentdemocratic reforms.(pp in text)
5Britain Enacts Reforms A Severely Limited DemocracyIn the early 1800s, vote limited to men with substantial propertyWomen could not vote at allUpper classes (5%) run the governmentThe Reform Bill of 18321832 bill gives middle class suffrage – the right to voteEnlarged the electorateAlso gives thriving new industrial cities more representation in parliament
10Chartist Movement The People’s Charter Universal male suffrage Annual parliamentary electionsSalaries for members of parliamentSecret BallotWould allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.
12The Victorian Age Queen Victoria Rules for 64 years at height of British power(Longest reign in British history)Symbol of a Nation’s ValuesDuty, thrift, honesty, code of morals and mannersA Confident AgeThe Middle and Working class feel great confidence in their future, as Britain expanded its already HUGE empire.Many social reforms!
18Organization & Resistance Many women organize to win the right to voteSome argue against it as too radical a break from traditionOthers say women do not have ability to engage in politics
19Militant Protests Emmeline Pankhurst forms: Women’s Social and Political UnionAfter 1903, WSPU members protest, go to jail, stage hunger strikesWomen do not win suffrage in the Britain and the U.S. until after WWI
22France & DemocracyFranco-Prussian War ends a long period of French domination in Europe.Napoleon III (yes, third!) surrenders to the Prussian army after a 4 month siege of Paris.France changes governments repeatedly after Franco-Prussian War – provisional governmentsThird Republic – French government formed in 1875, lasts for 70 years!Legislative body, with a prime ministerOver 50 coalition governments formed!
23The Suez CanalThe Suez Canal was built during this time period by France.The canal is located in NE Egypt and connects the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean.
24The Dreyfus Affair 1894 French Scandal High ranking army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, was accused of spying for Germany.At his trial, neither Dreyfus or his lawyer were allowed to see the evidence against him.This injustice was rooted in Anti-Semitism – Prejudice against JewsHe was convicted and exiled to Devil’s IslandPenal Colony of the coast of South America.By 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer as the spy.The Army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial.
26In 1898, French novelist Emile Zola wrote an article entitle, J’Acuuse In 1898, French novelist Emile Zola wrote an article entitle, J’Acuuse! (I Accuse).He charged the army and government with suppressing the truth.As a result, Zola was convicted of libel.He fled into exile.
28Rise of Zionism Zionism – belief in the creation of a Jewish homeland Grows after Dreyfus Affair
29So What Statement?Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic.Why is this information important?
30Topic 2: Self-Rule for British Colonies Britain allows self-rule in Canada, Australia,and new Zealand but delays itfor Ireland.
31Canada Struggles for Self-Rule French and English CanadaCanada was originally home to many Native American peoplesLater, problems between Catholic French, Protestant British settlersCanada split: Upper Canada (English),Lower Canada (French)(pp in text)
38The Durham ReportThis division eases tensions, but upper class holds powerMiddle class demands more reform, producing rebellions in 1830sJohn Lambton, the Earl of Durham wrote a report which called for a responsible government and a unified English speaking Canada.He also encouraged immigration from Britain to CanadaHoped to assimilate French-Canadians into British culture.
39The Dominion of CanadaCanadians want central government to protect interests against U.S.In 1867, Dominion of Canada formedDominion – self governing, but part of the British Empire
40Canada’s Westward Expansion First prime minister (PM) of Canada isJohn MacDonaldExpands Canada to Pacific, then builds transcontinental railroad
41Australia and New Zealand James Cook ExploresCaptain Cook claims New Zealand (1796), part of Australia (1770)Cook encounters Maori – native people of New ZealandAustralian native peoples called Aborigines by Europeans
44Britain’s Penal Colony In 1788, Britain starts colonizing Australia, makes it penal colonyPenal colony – place where convicts are sent to serve their sentencesUpon release, prisoners could buy land and settle
46Free Settlers Arrive! Free people eventually settle both locations Settlers introduce sheep; wool becomes major exportGovernment offers cheap land to encourage immigration
47Achieving Self-Government In 1901, Britain helps Australian provinces unite and creates the Independent Commonwealth of Australia.Australia kept the British Monarch as head of state.Unlike Britain and the U.S., Australia quickly granted women the right to vote.In 1856, it became the first nation to introduce the secret ballot.
48Ireland A Troubled History English expansion into and domination of Ireland begins in the late 1100sIrish Catholic majority resents British laws favoring Protestants(pp in text)
49The Great HungerIrish peasants depend heavily on potatoes for nourishmentpotato famine destroys entire crop!1 million out of 8 million people dieMillions flee Ireland to U.S., Canada, Australia, Britain(p. 730 in text)
54The Irish Win Home Rule Demands for Home Rule Local control over internal affairsHome rule finally granted in 1914, postponed by WWI
55Rebellion & DivisionFrustrated Irish nationalist stage failed Easter Uprising in 1916Irish Republican ArmyUnofficial military force seeking independence1919, fight War of Independence against BritishIn 1921, Ireland splitsNorthern Ireland becomes part of BritainSouth becomes Irish Free State, then Republic of Ireland in 1949
58So What Statement?Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic.Why is this information important?
59Topic 3: War and Expansion in the United States The United States expands across North America and fights a civil war(pp in text)
60Americans Move West Manifest Destiny U.S. has a duty to rule ocean to oceanU.S. pushes Native Americans continuously west to worse lands
61Texas Joins the United States American settlers enter Texas, grow unhappy with Mexican ruleWin independence in 1836; U.S. annexes Texas in 1845
62War with MexicoIn 1848, U.S. wins Mexican War, gains southwest, California
63Civil War Tests Democracy North and SouthNorth uses free labor, has both farms and industrySouth depends on slave labor, grows a few cash crops (mainly cotton)Slavery fuels disagreement over states’ rights versus federal rights
64Civil War Breaks OutAbraham Lincoln – elected in 1860, fiercely opposed by SouthSouthern states withdraw from the UnionU.S Civil War – North defeats South after bitter fighting ( )
65The Post War Economy Immigration By 1914, more than 20 million immigrants arrive from Europe and AsiaMost immigrants settle in West, Midwest, or Northeast U.S.Immigrants provide workforce needed for industrialization
66Railroads Transcontinental railroad links East and West in 1869 Almost 200,000 miles of track cross the U.S. by 1900Railroads allow quick movement of goods and raw materials
73Ford Sparks the Automobile Industry In 1880s, Germans invent first automobileHenry Ford lowers cost with assembly line – one task per workerThe Wright Brothers FlyIn 1903, Wright brothers develop first working airplane
74New Ideas in Medicine The Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur discovers existence of bacteria while observing fermentationDiscover that bacteria causes diseaseSterilizing reduces deaths from infectionsVaccines are developedCities improve sanitation
75Darwin Challenges Creationism Charles Darwin – English scientist develops Theory of EvolutionIn 1880s most people believed in “creation” by God
77Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Natural Selection – competition elevates “fittest”Fittest then breed, their offspring share advantagesGradually, over generations, species change; new species evolveTheory of Evolution – species change slowly through natural selection
78GeneticsAustrian monk Gregor Mendel discovers patters to inherited traitsMendel’s work begins the science of genetics
79Social Sciences Explore Behavior Ivan Pavlov believes human actions are actually unconscious reactionsSigmund Freud studies unconscious, develops psychoanalysisTheir ideas shake Enlightenment’s faith in reason!
83The Rise of Mass Culture Mass Culture – art, music, writing, entertainment for large audienceChanges Produce Mass CultureLeisure activities (movies, music) now available to working classSpectator sports draw huge crowds!