Presentation on theme: "Salvage, Overhaul, and Fire Cause Determination"— Presentation transcript:
1 Salvage, Overhaul, and Fire Cause Determination Chapter 20Salvage, Overhaul, and Fire Cause Determination
2 IntroductionSalvage and overhaul operations are not viewed as critical tasksNot associated with excitement of fire attack, rescue, or ventilationFirefighters should:Be involved in fire cause determinationWatch for potential signs and conditions that will assist the fire investigator
3 (A)(B)Figure (A) Good and (B) bad salvage operations.
4 Salvage Tools, Equipment, and Maintenance Fire incidents have a potential loss of material goodsCompany officer must “triage” entire sceneBasic premise of salvage operations is to remove harmful atmosphere from materialAlways use proper toolsSome operations require complex equipment
5 Salvage Covers Mainstay of salvage operations Made out of several different materialsPlastics covers have advantage of weight and water resistanceCanvas covers durable; water resistant if treatedSize of cover can varyVisqueen or heavy plastic used to supplementOther tools needed: knife or scissors to cut desired length
7 Floor RunnerMade of lightweight canvas-type material for easy deploymentProtects the floor down a hallway or along a traffic areaImportant not to damage floors unnecessarilyCustomer service makes the differenceSign of professionalism
9 Water Vacuum Two basic types Backpack cannot be worn with SCBAs Worn like a backpackLarger and moved around on wheelsBackpack cannot be worn with SCBAsUsed to quickly drain catch-allsLimited capacity: around 5 gallonsAnother option is a pumpSubmersible pump dropped directly into waterFloat-a-pump floats on top of the water
10 Miscellaneous Salvage Tools Some other tools:HammerNailsStaple gunsVisqueen can be left with the structure with little cost to the departmentDoors and windows need to be securedSalvage covers can prevent a leak from damaging other items
11 Maintenance of Salvage Tools After use, tools must be cleaned and inspectedTools often exposed to hazardous materialsPlace damaged tools out of serviceReimbursement for damaged tools should be claimed from property owner’s insurance companyDo not allow debris to spill from salvage coverLoose fold and rollWash cover with soap and waterDrying the cover can be difficultInspect cover for holes
13 Salvage Cover Folds and Rolls Covers are either rolled or foldedAvailable compartment space dictates which method to useSprinkle the cover with baby powder and spread with a broom to prevent cover from stickingTwo firefighters are needed to roll a coverFold cover neatly like a bed sheet
14 Salvage Operations Safety considerations Methods of protecting material goodsStopping water flowing from sprinkling headsArranging of furnishings and salvage cover deploymentWater removalPost indicator valve and outside screw and yoke valveSprinkler stops
15 Safety Considerations Basic goal is property conservationSalvage group members must be aware of their surroundingsForcible entry tools may be necessaryOne of the most common hazards of salvage work is ceiling collapseKnow what other operations are going on and where they are taking place
16 Stopping Water Flowing from Sprinkler Heads Several types of sprinkler stops availableMost common is the sprinkler wedgeBe careful not to break head off sprinklerWear eye protection and full protective clothingLock the ladder
17 Methods of Protecting Material Goods Can an item be moved more quickly than it can be covered?If yes, go for itPatio furnitureItems in garageItems in the way of fire attack crews should be moved
18 Arranging of Furnishings and Salvage Cover Deployment Cover item when it is too large or time consuming to moveTwo firefighters should deploy VisqueenTake extra care with breakablesWorking with Visqueen is the same as working with folded coverConsider by-products of combustion
20 Water Removal Water can leak through the floor Critical to capture, divert, or remove waterIf no drain exists, create oneUse salvage covers to create dikeCatch-alls used to contain waterWater chute diverts water
22 Post Indicator Valve and Outside Screw and Yoke Valve Two types of valves used to shut down a sprinkler system:Post indicator valve (PIV)Outside screw and yoke (OS&Y)PIV usually located near sprinkler connection for buildingOS&Y valve located on exterior wall or just inside building
24 Sprinkler Stops Use sprinkler stops if no valves can be located A-frame ladder will reach most ceilingsFirefighters must use caution
25 The Importance of Salvage Operations Can be as important as any actions performed on emergency sceneMake something good out of a bad situationPreserve as much property as possible
26 Overhaul Tools and Equipment Process of overhaul is as important as the initial extinguishmentTools used for overhaul built for following tasks:Tearing into buildingCutting through floorsPulling ceilingsSearch for hidden fires
27 Common Tools Common overhaul tools: Pike poles Pitchforks Rubbish hooksShovelsAxesChain sawsCarry-allsWheelbarrows
28 Carry-All 6-foot-square piece of heavy canvas Rope strung through grommets for handlesUsed to carry debris out of buildingUsed where wheelbarrows cannot be used
29 Overhaul OperationsAfter fire investigation concerns have been met, overhaul investigations can beginLook for obvious signs of hidden fireThermal imaging cameras find fires and hotspots in areas firefighters cannot seeObserve wooden structural membersInsulation must be removed if area has been breached
30 Overhauling Roofs Long tedious process There can be multiple roofs Pitched roof may be built over flat roofCreates two attic spacesOverhaul nightmare
31 Electronic Heat Sensors Relatively new way to check for hot spotsDetermine where heat is higher compared to surrounding areasSensor’s alerting mechanisms differSome used to find people through the smoke
32 (A)(B)Figure (A) Helmet with thermal imaging camera attached. (B) Firefighter using a handheld thermal imaging camera.
33 Revisits of the Involved Structure Important to revisit scene of incidentWise to make additional checksGood rule is to visit 2 hours after last company or personnel leaves and again within 10 hoursCrews from the next shift can go by the incidentBusiness owner can hire a security company to maintain fire watch
34 Debris RemovalRemoving debris while searching for hidden fires is importantLoose material must be removed and further extinguishedPlace material in a pile and lightly hosed downWhen material removal completed, cover debris with Visqueen to reduce the eyesore
35 The Importance of the Overhaul Operations Customer service aspects of overhaul are manySearch for hidden firesLimit amount of uncovered debris left behindLeave building in a safe state for ownersOverhaul work is often the only thing owners get to see the result ofMake sure overhaul works in concert with fire investigator
36 Fire Cause Determination Concerns Be aware of possible clues as to how the fire startedAll firefighters should listen to the reported informationAll available information should be documentedDuring response, additional information may be gathered by questioningFirefighters must ensure that investigator pre-approves removal of any part of structure
37 Preservation of Evidence Preserve items that seem out of the ordinaryLeave items where they are found and protect and preserve areaCordon off areaCompromised evidence and areas because of carelessness can lead to legal actions
38 Basics of Point of Origin Determination Can be a very scientific pursuitInvestigators employ scientific approachWatch for basic cluesFire travel the path of least resistanceDetermine fire’s starting point and where it spread is the depth of charDamage can be influenced by many factors
41 The Importance of Fire Cause Determination Assisting fire investigator should be second natureEvery detail should be noted and passed alongFire investigators are just another member of the teamFirefighters’ actions can help or hinder investigation
42 Securing the BuildingMake sure the building is secure after completing all operationsSome jurisdictions rely on board-up crews or restoration companiesPrior to leaving an incident scene, consider:Where will they stay or do business?What are they going to do for clothing?Do they have insurance?Does the Red Cross need to be contacted?
43 Figure 20-28 Building that has been boarded up after a fire.
44 Lessons Learned Salvage and overhaul duties are vital Salvage and overhaul have a direct impact on success of incidentThese duties are a great customer service for the homeowner, even if they are never recognized
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