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SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages.

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Presentation on theme: "SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages."— Presentation transcript:

1 SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages

2 Lecture 2 Different views on Language acquisition 1. The behaviourist view 2. The innatist view 3. The interactionist view

3 A brief introduction to TG theory A brief introduction to TG theory externalist vs. internalist externalist --- structuralism internalist --- TG theory

4 4 stages of TG theory Syntax-structure theory Standard theory/Extended-standard theory Government/binding theory The minimalist theory

5 1st stage Features: 1). Emphasis on generative ability of language 2). Introduction of transformational rules 3). Grammatical description regardless of meaning

6 3 sets of rules: --- phrase structure rules --- transformational rules --- phonological rules

7 The Phrase-structure Rules S NP + VP VP Verb + NP NP NP ( single ) NP ( plural ) NP (s ) D + N NP (p) D + N + s D the N { man, ball, door, dog, book,...} Verb Aux + V V { hit, take, bite, eat, walk, open, … } Tense present/past M { will, can, may, shall, must, … } 3 sets of rules: --- phrase structure rules --- transformational rules --- phonological rules

8 S N P VP V NP art NPl V past art N The boys watch ed the game

9 S N P VP V P P art NP P N P The game was watched by the boys

10 TG grammar --- rules internalist view linguistic creativity Ideally a grammatical description of a language should comprise rules that will generate possible, grammatically acceptable, sentences.

11 2nd phase standard theory extended standard theory revised extended standard theory remarkable changes: 1) semantics ---- focus 2) the distinction of deep structure & surface structure 3) the distribution of syntactic elements was changed

12 SYNTAX PS rules transformational rules base deep structure surface structure semantic component phonological component semantic interpretation phonetic interpretation

13 tendency: the reduction of transformational components/transformational rules a single rule --- move

14 3rd phase Government and binding theory research interest: universal grammar GB --- two components of universal core grammar rule-orientation principle-orientation

15 GB --- network of subtheories binding theory bounding theory case theory -theory x-bar theory adjacency parameter pro-drop parameter

16 4th phase The minimalist approach two related questions: 1). What are the general conditions that the human faculty should be expected to satisfy? 2). To what extent is the language faculty determined by these conditions, without a special structure that lie beyond them?

17 features: 1) Deep structure and surface structure are left out. 2) The theory of government has turned from a subsystem of universal grammar into the interpretative constraint of the output condition

18 Questions being studied: --- How language is acquired? What are thought to be the processes involved? --- What role previous knowledge plays in the acquisition process? --- How affective factors influence the way we perceive and process second language data?

19 The behaviouristic view Explain behaviour how ? Observe responses when ? Stimuli are present S-R model : regular behaviour The association of a particular response with a particular stimulus constitutes a habit

20 two characteristics of habits: 1) habits are observable The true basis for psychological enquiry existed only in objects that could be touched and actions that could be observed. Watson

21 2) habits are automatic formed spontaneously difficult to eradicate behaviour is controlled by the environment

22 Skinners tenets 1) Learning is a mechanical process of habit formation 2) Reinforcement is necessary for the skills to be learnt. 3) Repetion plays an important role 4) Generalization

23 Teaching implications ( AL method ) 1) habits are strengthened by reinforcement 2) foreign language habits are formed most effectvely by giving the right response, not eh by making mistakes 3) language is behaviour and behaviour can be learned only by inducing students to behave

24 Characteristics of AL method --- ordered/graded --- pattern drills --- reward --- avoid too much explanation --- avoid errors --- emphasis on form

25 Syllabus --- graded Activity types --- dialogue & drills --- repetition & memorization --- pattern practice

26 Teacher roles --- teacher-oriented --- provide models --- control direction/pace Materials --- tapes --- visual aids/language

27 The innatist view Shift in thinking in psychology & linguistics nurture to nature new paradigm--- innatist/mentlist/nativist behaviourist view vs innatist view nurture vs nature external vs internal

28 Focus: the internal working of the brain LAD genetically determined ability biological inheritance evidences to support the view: 1) Children learn their mother tongue very fast and with little effort 2) Children learn their mother tongue in very different environment, but they follow more or less the same stages in acquisition

29 the babbling stage nonsense word stage holophrastic stage two-word utterance developing grammar near-adult grammar full competence

30 3) The child learns the total grammar of the language during a limited period of time, from limited exposure to speech. 4) Children seem to accomplish the complex task of LA without having someone consistently point out to them which are correct and which are ungrammatical.

31 the only explanation: Children are born with a special ability to discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system LAD --- imaginary black box underlying principles/rules

32 --- contain all and only the principles which are universal to all human languages ( UG ) --- for LAD to work, the child needs access only to samples of the natural language --- once it is activated, the child is able to discover the structure of the language by matching the innate knowledge of basicgrammatical relationships to the structure of the particular language in environment

33 Chomskys tenets: 1) The capacity to learn language is universal, the ability to learn is innate. 2) Man is a reasoning being 3) Reinforcement is not enough

34 Teaching implications --- provide lots of meaningful language --- no need to avoid errors --- no need for repetition --- no set order of skills

35 In certain fundamental respects we do not really learn language; rather grammar grows in the mind N. Chomsky

36 The interactionist view The behaviouristic view learner --- a language-producing machine linguistic environment the crucial determining factor input: language in the form of input language as feedback

37 The innatist view learner --- a grand initiator exposure to language not account for acquisition input: a trigger

38 The interactionist view intermediate view learner --- actively contributing to LA dependent on input two versions cognitive interactionist social interactionist

39 The cognitive interactionist view Jean. Piaget LA --- interaction linguistic environment internal mechanisms input --- determining function in LA within the constraints of internal mechanism

40 The social interactionist view M. Long verbal interaction LA --- collaborative efforts learner interlocutors dynamic interplay external factors internal factors

41 interactions NS Vs NNS Teachers Vs students Adults Vs children Peers Vs peers

42 Interactional modifications comprehensible input--- necessary for LA interactional modification --- necessary mechanism interactinal modification makes input comprehensible comprehensible input promotes acquisition interactional modification promotes acquisition interactional modification discourse management discourse repair

43 discourse management --- here-and-now orientation --- comprehension checks --- self-repetitions e.g He got stuck in the window trying to get in. He got stuck. The innatist emphasizes the internal working of the brain. The internal working.

44 discourse repair problematic communication non-engagement miscommunication non communi. mis incomplete communi. breakoff understanding understanding non partial understanding

45 repair --- negotiation of meaning clarification requests confirmation requests e.g He pushes too much. You mean he is pushy? China has a lot of pepper. Chinese food has a lot of pepper? other-repetition expansions

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