2Intro to age of uncertainty After the World War I, people started to challenge the ideas from the Enlightment . People started to challenge science, literature, art, music, communication, and transportation.
3Science challenges old ideas Albert EinsteinNew ideas on space, energy, time, and matterAsked questions about old beliefs; age of Enlightment; Newton, the laws of motion +gravityTHEORY OF RELATIVITY:space and time are relativeconcepts rather than absoluteconceptsContradicting to Newton’s idea.People are confused anduncertain; Newton’sidea = comforting belief
4Unconscious: lacking awareness Sigmund FreudTheory about the human mind“Believed human behavior isirrational, or beyond reason Hecalled the irrational part of themind unconscious.”Unconscious: lacking awarenessConscious: Having awareness of one’s existence and thoughts.
5Literature in an Age of Doubt World War I; philosophers&writers questioned ideas that werepreviously accepted by the societyduring the age of EnlightmentExpressed anxietiesthrough writing andart; visualizing the future
6Uncertain World turns into Theory EXISTENTIALISM: emphasize uniqueness of individual experience indifferent universe. Human existence is unexplainable. Freedom for responsibility and choice stress consequences; people make their own decisions.Started by Jean Paul Sartre, Karl JaspersExistentialists: no universal meaningto life.Friedrich Nietzsche: Have fate inyourself. Do what you think is rightfor you.
7Franz Kafka, James Joyce, many other writers included Freud’s theories on the unconscious.Stream of Consciousness: “technique thatpresents the thoughts and feelings of a characteras they occur.” (dic.tion.ar.ies)
8Rebellion in the ArtsRenaissance and previous generations changed art, architecture, and music, but after the war art developed into a new Era.
9Painters Break Away from Tradition Artists went against earlier traditional paintingsWanted to reflect the inner world of emotion and imagination; didn’t wanted to show realistic objectsPaul Klee& Wassily Kandinsky used bold colors, distorted shapes and formsPablo Picasso, Georges Braque found Cubism: 1907Cubism: Inspired by African art, emphasizing flat, 2D, fragmented surface, foreshortening, modeling, and changing shapes into geometric form
11The Dada Movement (1916-1924) Protest in art movement. Disrespected traditional art and cultural values by producing works that were nonsense.Dada in French is “hobbyhorse.” – it was picked randomly.Dadaist’s art works were nonsense, absurd, and meaningless.
13Surrealism: art movement after Dada Surrealism: art movement after Dada. It was based from Freud's idea, it attempted to express the world of dreams, fantasy with real life. It used fantastic imagery and inappropriate figures. Surreal means “beyond or above reality.”Artists tried to call the unconscious part of their minds.Drew objects in unrealistic ways
15Architects Move in New Directions Architects refused to accept traditional building starts after the World War I. They started to find new ways to construct and design buildings,Highly decorated structures XDesign reflects building’s function& use OFrank Lloyd Wright: FUNCIONALISM: design reflects building’s function& useClean, low lines, open interiorsthat blend with surface
16Composers Try New Styles JazzComposers shifted away from traditional musicIgor Stravinsky used irregular rhythms and harsh combinations (audience booed and walked out from the performance)Arnold Schoenberg created 12-tone scaleFrom the U.S.New Orleans, Memphis, Chicago; developed mostly by African Americans“The lively loose beat of jazz seemed to capture the new freedom of the age.”(p.417)
17Society becomes more open After the war people wanted more pleasure. All people had their own independent freedom. Women were not longer discriminated. Women could have careers now. They could wear more abandoned clothing, change their hair style, and wear make-up and many other things.
18Technology changes Life After World War l, the pace of new inventions quickened. During the War, scientists had to invent new medicines to help millions of people who fought in the war.During the war they also needed better transportation and communication. This was also needed after the war.Example: Automobile. Air filled tires, powerful engine, polished, sleek
19This changed the lifestyle of many people This changed the lifestyle of many people. People traveled more for enjoyment. Because people traveled more often, motor hotels changed to vacation campgrounds.Airplane. After the war, airplanes improved fast. People could perform aerial acrobatics. Charles Lindbergh made a flight from New York to Paris in 33 hours. People also could travel on airplanes.Radio. Radios developed during the war. Soldiers needed to communicate with their side. The wireless communication was so great that they used it after the war too. Soon radio stations developed, that broadcasted sports, news, and plays. Many countries, especially the Europeans eagerly listened to radio broadcasts and in a little while most of the owned a radio.
20Movies: Before World War l, motion pictures were created Movies: Before World War l, motion pictures were created. After the war motion pictures got more broadly known. In Europe, the themes of most movies were political or psychological. Hollywood was a place where 90% of all films were produced. At this time the most popular silent movie star was Charlie Chaplin.The advances of transportation and communication brought the world into a closer touch.