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McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Criminal Investigation Criminal Investigation Swanson Chamelin Territo eighth edition TWENTY Terrorism
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain mission ‑ specific and sleeper cells Be familiar with different terrorist groups that threaten the United States and its allies Distinguish between right ‑ wing and left ‑ wing terrorists Describe four prominent national structures involved in terrorist intelligence, and outline their responsibilities Define joint terrorism task forces Identify the purpose of a suspicious ‑ activity log Understand the process of critical thinking Describe the function of a reconnaissance operation 20-1
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM The use or threatened use of violence against persons or property by a group (or an individual) whose operations transcend national boundaries and are done to further political or social objectives 20-2
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM The world and now the U.S. are not strangers to terrorism The past two decades have demonstrated a continuing pattern of terrorist-caused violence The tragedy of September 11th has resulted in the U.S. declaring war on terrorism 20-3
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM 20-3 YearGroupAction 1981Red ArmyBomb explosion on U.S. Airbase at Ramstein, then in West Germany 1981Takflr Wal-Hajira sectAssassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat during a troop review 1983Islamic JihadU.S. Embassy bombing, Beruit 1983Islamic JihadSuicide bomb truck, Marine Barracks, Beruit 1984HizballahBomb attack, Torrenjon, Spain, restaurant popular with U.S. Service menbers 1984Sikh terroristsSeize the Golden Temple in India, 100 killed 1985NacrotraffickersIn Mexico, kidnap, torture, interrogate a DEA agent and his pilot on orders from Rafael Cero 1986North Korean agentsDetonate bomb at South Korea’s Kimpo Airport in South Korea 1987Libyan agentsBomb attack in Berlin discoteque frequented by U.S. military members 1988Organization of Jihad Brigades Car bomb exploded outside of USI Club in Naples, Italy 1988Libyan terroristsPan American flight 103 blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland 1989New People’s ArmyAssassination of U.S. Army Colonel Rowe in Manila; he had survived long years of captivity during the war in South Vietnam 1990New People’s ArmyTwo U.S. airmen assassinated in the Phillipines 1990Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement Peru, U.S. Embassy bombed 1993Followers of cleric Umar Abd al-Rahman World Trade Center bombing, NYC 1993Iraqi Intelligence Service Attempted to assassinate President Bush during visit to Kuwait
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM 20-3 YearGroupAction 1994Baruch GoldsteinJewish right-wing extremist, who was also an American citizen, uses machine gun at mosque, killing 29 and wounding an estimated Unidentified gunmenKarachi, Pakistan, assassination of two American diplomats 1995Right-wing extremistsBombing of U.S. Federal Building, Oklahoma City, killing UnknownA rocket propelled grenade (RPG) fired through the window of the U.S Embassy in Moscow, perhaps as retaliation for U.S. air strikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia 1996Irish Republican Army (IRA) Bomb detonated in London, killing two and wounding more than Tamil TigersLiberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) explode bomb in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 90 slain and over 1,400 injured 1996Several groups claim responsibility U.S. Military’s housing facility in Dhahran, Khobar Towers, fuel truck carrying explosives kills 19 and wounds Tupac Amaru23 members of the Tupac Amaru Revolution Movement (MRTA) take several hundred hostages at the Japanese Ambassador’s residence in Lima, Peru 1997Palestinian gunmanObservation Deck, Empire State Building, NYC, gunman opens fire on tourists from several countries, killing one and injuring others, kills himself. Note left by gunman state this was a punishment attack on “the enemies of Palestine.” 1998Al-QuedaBombings of U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a total of 69 were killed in the attacks and some 5,077 wounded 1999FARCThree U.S. Citizens kidnapped by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and executed in Venezuela, one of numerous FARC attacks reported 2000Al-QuedaU.S.S. destroyer Cole attacked by launch filled with explosives, causing major damage to the ship, killing 17, and injuring another Al-QuedaTwin Towers and Pentagon attacks, producing horrific casualties
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. MISSION SPECIFIC CELLS In terrorist organizations, small units put together for the purpose of executing a specific assignment 20-4
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE PENTAGON AFTER TERRORIST ATTACK The Pentagon was also a target of terrorists on 9/11/01 This attack was performed by a mission-specific cell of terrorists 20-5 © Reuters NewMedia Inc./Corbis
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. SLEEPER CELLS In terrorist organizations, small groups of recruits who are in place in target and other countries, living ordinary lives until activated for the cause; may also perform services for their immediate group (e.g., courier and reconnaissance tasks) 20-6
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DOMESTIC TERRORISM The use or threatened use of violence against persons or property by a group (or an individual) whose operations are entirely within the victims’ nation, without foreign direction, and are done to further political or social objectives 20-7
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DOMESTIC TERRORISM Domestic terrorism in the U.S. can be divided into three groups: –Right ‑ Wing Terrorists. Often adhere to the principles of racial supremacy and embrace antigovernment, antiregulatory beliefs. –Left ‑ Wing Terrorists. Profess a revolutionary socialist doctrine and view themselves as protectors of the people against the 'dehumanizing effects’ of capitalism and imperialism. –Special ‑ Interest Groups. Perhaps the most active special ‑ interest groups in the United States are the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). 20-8
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING The Federal Building in Oklahoma City was bombed in 1995 The bombing was committed by a right- wing domestic terrorist Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were convicted in this horrible crime 20-9 © AFP/Corbis
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THREAT ASSESSMENT Of necessity, threat assessments are ongoing and subject to change as usable intelligence about intentions and capabilities of existing and new groups is produced Since 1968,14,000 international terrorist attacks have taken place throughout the world In the United States, between 1980 and 1999, there were 457 prevented, suspected, or actual terrorist acts, of which 163 involved international terrorists 20-10
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TERRORISM BY GROUP CLASS Today the U.S. must be vigilant about both international and domestic terrorism Between 1980 and such acts in the U.S. involved international terrorists (Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Terrorism in the United States [Washington, DC: FBI, 1999), p. 33).
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TERRORISM BY EVENT, Bombings were the most frequent type of terrorist event in the U.S. between Bombings cause destruction, result in loss of lives, and place entire cities in fear (Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Terrorism in the United States [Washington, DC: FBI, 1999), p. 41).
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. NATIONAL STRUCTURES The National Infrastructures Protection Center (NIPC) is responsible for: –Protecting and investigating unlawful acts against U.S. computers –And information technologies and unlawful acts, both physical and electronic, that threaten or target critical U.S. infrastructures Enacted in response to the September 11 attacks the U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 provides law enforcement with new, broadened electronic surveillance authority 20-13(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. NATIONAL STRUCTURES (cont'd) The National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO) is responsible for assisting state and local authorities with the planning, equipping, and training, including health and medical support, needed to respond to a WMD attack The FBI Counterterrorism Center operates on three fronts: international terrorism operations both within the United States and abroad, domestic terrorism operations, and counterterrorism measures at home and abroad 20-13(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCES (JTTFS) Joint terrorism task forces (JTTFs) are responsible for gathering and acting on intelligence related to international and domestic terrorism, conducting investigations related to planned terrorist acts, preventing such acts, and investigating terrorist acts in their geographic areas of responsibility. Consisting of representatives of federal agencies and state and local enforcement officers, JTTFs are ultimately supervised by the FBI
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PURPOSE OF A SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITY LOG To keep a record of “little” suspicious activities observed by officers. To “connect the dots” between these observations. To apply critical thinking skills. To foil a terrorist attack or some other criminal activity
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE PROCESS OF CRITICAL THINKING Rigorously challenging your views Also challenging the views of others Reasonably assessing the basis of: –assumptions –beliefs 20-16
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. FUNCTION OF A RECONNAISSANCE OPERATION The following activities may occur prior to a terrorist act: –Rooms are rented that allow a view of the target –Insiders may be recruited to provide drawings and copies of target floor plans. –Jobs may be taken that allow access to the target site –Photos may be taken of the site 20-17
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. BIOLOGICAL AGENTS Certain microorganisms and toxins produced by organisms (e.g., smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism) that cause human illness or death and could be used as terrorist weapons; typically slower acting than chemical agents 20-18
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. AN OPENED LETTER CONTAINING ANTHRAX Following the tragedy of September 11, 2001 several letters containing anthrax were discovered The photo is of one such letter sent to news anchor Tom Brokaw Later postal employees and others were given training on how to spot and deal with suspicious mail (Courtesy Federal Bureau of Investigation)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHEMICAL AGENTS Rapidly acting substances (e.g., mustard gas, sarin, V agents) that produce a variety of incapacitating symptoms or death; as weapons, can cause mass casualties and devastation 20-20
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. AGROTERRORISM The use of biological agents as weapons against the agricultural and food supply industries 20-21
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