Atoll Formation 1. Volcanic Island Forms 2. Coral Fringing Reef is Established 3. Island Submerges as it cools 4. Barrier of Coral Appears 5. Island Submerges below sea level leaving only coral island 6. Atoll is formed
Temperature Measurements Satellites Ratios of Isotopes The 18 O/ 16 O ratio provides a record of ancient water temperature. (Ocean Sediments) The 18 O/ 16 O ratio provides a record of ancient temperature in ice too.