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2 INTRODUCTION Sustainable development is defined as Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development thus ensures that all man-made and natural resources support socio-economic development and growth which meets the present and future needs of both human kind and other living things. Therefore, for future generations to benefit from the use of these resources there is the need to effectively and efficiently manage the economic, social and natural resources which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. These issues have given rise to the current global concerns, about how to balance the needs of the present generation, within the context of present day knowledge, so as to preserve the environment and its resources in order to meet the needs of future generations. Thus it behooves on the present generation to take all the necessary steps to preserve the environment when it comes to providing for their household needs, industrial development and growth projects, agricultural and agro- processing programmes, social mobility and efficient use of the human capital It is no gainsaying that, sustainable development has direct relationship with sound environmental practices. Due to the survivability instinct of all living things, the human race tends to move to areas where the environment can support the provision of their basic needs and by extension, sustain socio-economic development and growth.

3 INTRODUCTION It is abundantly clear that due to bad socio-cultural practices the environment, water bodies including the maritime environment been badly abused. The level of the pollution of some of the water resources is to the extent that they no longer support life. As a result of these negative human activities, the desert is also gradually creeping south wards. Through such poor environments practices there has been complete in balance in the eco-system. The situation is not any different in the maritime environment. We have been witnessing dwindling stock of marine based fishes. The Gas and other coastal fisher men can attest to this. When it comes to local energy requirements, the least said about it the better. The citizenry continue to harvest fire wood for cooking and for other social activities including some festivals. The indiscriminate cutting of the forest for such social activities and commercial logging by the logging companies need to be managed in a more efficient and effective manner else the country is likely to lose its forest cover by Enforcing the policy guidelines and legislative instruments on the use of renewable energy in the country will help reverse this poor state of affairs. Also there is the need to enforce the laws and regulations on protection of water bodies. Safeguarding the policies of biodiversity will go a long way to uphold the principles of conservation of nature through good environmental practices. In Ghana, a number of policies which seek to advocate social intervention so as to develop the requisite human and social capital, to ensure sustainable development and growth hinging on good environmental practices have been enacted. However the commitment to implement these policies and developmental programmes by Government functionaries has been the greatest challenge in the country. The challenges emanating from the inability to effectively implement these policies and developmental programmes have led to retarded national development agenda. This seems to lead to an emerging threat to social and human security challenges in the country. Therefore there is the need to seek immediate remedy to the emerging threat so as to preserve the unity and the associated relative peace, harmony and social cohesion which the country is enjoying.

4 AIM To analyse the extent of sustainable development emanating from good environmental practices to facilitate socio- economic development in Ghana.

5 SCOPE A brief overview of sustainable development in Ghana Analysis of best environmental practices in Ghana: Brief over view of Socio – economic development in Ghana. Proposals to facilitate socio-economic development in Ghana Conclusion Recommendation

6 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA The country still experiences food insecurity, lack of access to modern emergency services and basic social amenities, degraded environment including our water bodies and poor waste management policies. Also there is inadequate and unstable energy supply as well as new and emerging challenges of climate change, land and environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and water storage which in the long run, jeopardise prospects for long-term growth and sustainable livelihoods. Environmental Practices in the country leaves much to be desired. Due to this poor environmental practices as a result of current human activities emanating from lack of concern for the environment, most of the water bodies in the country have been polluted. Their very existence has been threatened by human activities. Rivers like the Odaw, in Greater Accra Region, Densu in the Eastern Region and Wewe in Ashanti Region Kumasi are some few examples that will be sited here

7 The greatest challenge to sustainable development in Ghana is environmental degradation due to over-exploitation of the countrys forests, wildlife and fisheries. In addition, poor socio-cultural practices have left most of our water bodies polluted and near extinction. It is sad to not that most no longer sustain aquatic life Also, it is worth noting that, though the country has registered significant reduction of overall levels of poverty, especially in southern Ghana, the same cannot be said of the situation in the northern part of the country. Medium-Term National Development Policy Framework: Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA), Chapter 4.2. Ghana is one of the countries in the third world that is endowed with vast natural resources including off-shore oil deposits and human capital. However, it is unfortunate that despite these high reserves of natural resources and human capital, the country continues to wallow in poverty, plagued with preventable diseases and grabbling with inconsistencies in educational and health policies. All these challenges are compounded by corruption in high places within the Public and Civil Services and bad corporate and democratic governance practices. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA

8 Since the 4 th Republic, successive governments had embarked on a number of poverty alleviation programmes, social exclusion interventions and actions to curb rural-urban migrations as well as educational reform programmes. Some of these programmes are GPRS, GPRS I and GPRS II as well as LESDEP, LEAP, MASLOC, ICT4AD. However poor policy implementation practices coupled bad governance and endemic corruption among public officials has led to the country still wallowing in poverty, plagued with preventable diseases and saddled with high illiteracy rate among the populace. This unfortunate state of affairs has given rise to high incidences of rural–urban migration in Ghana with its attendant socio-economic challenges. Way forward for Sustainable development is to facilitate socio-economic development in Ghana. – Legislature – enact laws, formulate Policies and institute programmes. Review enforcement regimes and commitment towards implementation. How selected development leads to rural urban migration and its associated social vice. Sustainable development is normally assessed by reference to parallel progress in its three pillars - economic growth, human development and environmental protection.

9 ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN GHANA A best practice is a technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. A commitment to using the best practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge and technology at one's disposal to ensure success. Examples of areas of consideration are: -provision of information and education to the public, to users and to producers about the environmental consequences of choice of particular activities and choice of products, their use and ultimate disposal; -the development and application of Codes of Good Environmental Practice which covers all aspects of the activity in the product's life; -availability of collection and disposal systems; -saving of resources, including energy; -recycling, recovery, re-use; -avoiding the use of hazardous substances and products and the generation of hazardous waste; -application of economic instruments to activities, products or groups of products; -a system of licensing which involves a range of restrictions or a ban. In determining what combination of measures constitute best environmental practice, in general or individual cases, particular consideration should be given to: -environmental hazard of the product, its production, its use and ultimate disposal; -substitution by less polluting activities or substances;

10 ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN GHANA These principles describe farming that uses available technology optimally to promote agricultural productivity of safe and healthy food, to achieve economic viability and agricultural, environmental sustainability and social responsibility, although this last dimension remains somewhat insufficiently addressed in the framework. The underlying process is one of knowing, understanding, planning, measuring, recording, and of managing in order to identify social, environmental and economic aspects of production goals and monitor related impacts. This requires a sound and comprehensive farming strategy and the capability for responsive tactical adjustments as circumstances change. Success depends upon developing the skill and knowledge bases, on continuous recording and analysis of performance, and the use of expert advice as required. Need to review our environmental practices in the following areas: Soil management and agronomical practices. Crop production and crop protection Animal health and animal welfare. Harvesting and On farm processing and storage. Energy and waste management. Wild life and landscape. Human welfare, health and safety

11 PROPOSED REMEDIES Unemployment in the rural areas. Provision of basic social amenities in rural areas. Access to credit facilities for entrepreneurs in both rural and urban centres. Improvement in the quality of education. Upgrading rural and cottage industries. Upgrade of farming techniques. Provision of ICT facilities in accordance with the ICT4AD policy frame work Mentorship.

12 CONCLUSION Comprehensive National Development Plan akin to the Kwame Nkrumah 7 Years Development Plan. Action should be taken to curb rural urban migration. The Decentralisation Policy must be implemented in earnest.

13 RECOMMENDATIONS Efforts should be made to implement policies, regulations and laws enacted in the interest of National Sustainability Development. National development plans should be implemented irrespective of Government in power The emerging threats to social and human security challenges must be managed in a more effective and efficient manner by the Security Agencies. A National Investment Bank must be set up to support entrepreneurs.


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