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Cardiovascular System

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiovascular System
The Heart

2 Functions of the Heart Generating blood pressure Routing blood
Heart separates pulmonary and systemic circulations Ensuring one-way blood flow Heart valves ensure one-way flow Regulating blood supply Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs

3 Size, Shape, Location of the Heart
Size of a closed fist Shape Apex: Blunt rounded point of cone Base: Flat part at opposite of end of cone Located in thoracic cavity in mediastinum

4 Heart Cross Section

5 Pericardium

6 Heart Wall Three layers of tissue
Epicardium: This serous membrane of smooth outer surface of heart Myocardium: Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle cell and responsibility for heart contracting Endocardium: Smooth inner surface of heart chambers

7 Heart Wall

8 External Anatomy Four chambers Auricles Major veins Major arteries
2 atria 2 ventricles Auricles Major veins Superior vena cava Pulmonary veins Major arteries Aorta Pulmonary trunk

9 External Anatomy

10 Coronary Circulation

11 Heart Valves Atrioventricular Semilunar
Tricuspid Bicuspid or mitral Semilunar Aortic Pulmonary Prevent blood from flowing back

12 Heart Valves

13 Function of the Heart Valves

14 Blood Flow Through Heart

15 Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation

16 Heart Skeleton Consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles Fibrous rings around valves to support Serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles Provides site for muscle attachment

17 Cardiac Muscle Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei Contains actin and myosin myofilaments Intercalated disks: Specialized cell-cell contacts Desmosomes hold cells together and gap junctions allow action potentials Electrically, cardiac muscle behaves as single unit

18 Conducting System of Heart

19 Electrical Properties
Resting membrane potential (RMP) present Action potentials Rapid depolarization followed by rapid, partial early repolarization. Prolonged period of slow repolarization which is plateau phase and a rapid final repolarization phase Voltage-gated channels

20 Action Potentials in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle

21 SA Node Action Potential

22 Refractory Period Absolute: Cardiac muscle cell completely insensitive to further stimulation Relative: Cell exhibits reduced sensitivity to additional stimulation Long refractory period prevents tetanic contractions

23 Electrocardiogram Action potentials through myocardium during cardiac cycle produces electric currents than can be measured Pattern P wave Atria depolarization QRS complex Ventricle depolarization Atria repolarization T wave: Ventricle repolarization

24 Cardiac Arrhythmias Tachycardia: Heart rate in excess of 100bpm
Bradycardia: Heart rate less than 60 bpm Sinus arrhythmia: Heart rate varies 5% during respiratory cycle and up to 30% during deep respiration Premature atrial contractions: Occasional shortened intervals between one contraction and succeeding, frequently occurs in healthy people

25 Alterations in Electrocardiogram

26 Cardiac Cycle Heart is two pumps that work together, right and left half Repetitive contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers Blood moves through circulatory system from areas of higher to lower pressure. Contraction of heart produces the pressure

27 Cardiac Cycle

28 Events during Cardiac Cycle

29 Heart Sounds First heart sound or “lubb” Second heart sound or “dupp”
Atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid vibrations as valves close at beginning of ventricular systole Second heart sound or “dupp” Results from closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at beginning of ventricular diastole, lasts longer Third heart sound (occasional) Caused by turbulent blood flow into ventricles and detected near end of first one-third of diastole

30 Location of Heart Valves

31 Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
Average blood pressure in aorta MAP=CO x PR CO is amount of blood pumped by heart per minute CO=SV x HR SV: Stroke volume of blood pumped during each heart beat HR: Heart rate or number of times heart beats per minute Cardiac reserve: Difference between CO at rest and maximum CO PR is total resistance against which blood must be pumped

32 Factors Affecting MAP

33 Regulation of the Heart
Intrinsic regulation: Results from normal functional characteristics, not on neural or hormonal regulation Starling’s law of the heart Extrinsic regulation: Involves neural and hormonal control Parasympathetic stimulation Supplied by vagus nerve, decreases heart rate, acetylcholine secreted Sympathetic stimulation Supplied by cardiac nerves, increases heart rate and force of contraction, epinephrine and norepinephrine released

34 Heart Homeostasis Effect of blood pressure
Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure Effect of pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen Chemoreceptors monitor Effect of extracellular ion concentration Increase or decrease in extracellular K+ decreases heart rate Effect of body temperature Heart rate increases when body temperature increases, heart rate decreases when body temperature decreases

35 Baroreceptor and Chemoreceptor Reflexes

36 Baroreceptor Reflex

37 Chemoreceptor Reflex-pH

38 Effects of Aging on the Heart
Gradual changes in heart function, minor under resting condition, more significant during exercise Hypertrophy of left ventricle Maximum heart rate decreases Increased tendency for valves to function abnormally and arrhythmias to occur Increased oxygen consumption required to pump same amount of blood

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