Presentation on theme: "SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages."— Presentation transcript:
SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages
Lecture 3 Learner Language Interlanguage 1. The three stages of development in SLA 2. The concept of interlanguage 3. The features of interlanguage 4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA ) 5. Interlanguage pragmatics
1. Three stages of development in SLA 1st period ( 1960s ) behaviourist psychology & structural linguistics scientific backing applied linguistics ( most commonly accepted sense ) CA ( contrastive analysis ) Lado Linguistics across cultures ( 1957 )
2nd period ( 1970s ) cognitive psychology & TG linguistics rift between the applied & theoretical aims of researchers learner---autonomous creator of language systems interlanguage creative construction EA ( error analysis )
3rd period ( 1980s on ) refine models seek closer links between second language research and other disciplines branch out e.g. Interlanguage pragmatics
2. The concept of interlanguage Different terms interlanguage L. Selinker ( 1972 ) approximative systems Nemser ( 1971 ) transitional competence Corder ( 1971 ) Definition the systematic knowledge of an L2 which is independent of both the learners L1 and the target language
Second language development should be seen as a succession of evolving systems that took the learner nearer and nearer to target system and further and further from the source system. The source system was defined as that language which is creating the interference
3. The features of interlanguage --- interlanguage is permeable open to amendment All the language systems are permeable difference: loss of permeability ( fossilization ) --- interlanguage is dynamic not static continually evolving basckslide
L1 TL IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 --- interlanguage is systematic rule-governed not select rules haphazardly but in predictable ways
Fossilization --- a lack of change in interlanguage patterns Many learners ( 95% ) fail to reach target language competence, i.e., fail to reach the end of the interlanguage continuum. They stop learning when their interlanguage contains at least some rules different from those of the target language system.
Factors contributing to the construction of IL --- overgeneralization --- simplification --- communication-based ( strategies for compensation for missing knowledge ) --- induced errors
4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA ) Steps of EA ( Corder, 1974 ) --- collection of a sample of learner language --- identification of errors --- description of errors --- explanation of errors --- evaluation of errors
collection of a sample of learner language identification of errors types of errors --- slip; mistake --- errors --- social gaffes the focus of EA: errors
description of errors errors are described in two categories: --- linguistic categories e.g. the skeleton of English clauses the auxiliary system passive sentences temporal conjunctions more general categories ( morphology, syntax, vocabulary etc )
--- surface strategy taxonomy omission e.g *She sleeping. addition e.g. * She didnt went there. misformation e.g. * The dog ated the chicken. misordering e.g. * What daddy is doing.
explanation of errors interlingual competence intralingual ( errors ) unique errors processing performance problems ( mistakes ) communication strategies
interlingual errors e.g. The building is tall. The man is tall. The building is high. * The man is high. intralingual errors e.g. We completed the task. They worked out a problem. * I drawed a picture.
unique errors e.g. This is a book. This is a desk. * This house is a white. * She is a standing. communication strategies e.g. They toast one another. He invites him to drink. air-cooler --- air-conditioner
evaluation of errors effect on the person addressed comprehension or affective response Problems with EA --- fail to see the whole picture of language learning --- difficult to identify the source of errors --- fail to point out other strategies or problems --- focus only on speaking & writing, not on listening & reading
Notes on error correction --- Should errors be corrected? learning: errors should be corrected acquisition: error correction is of no use --- When should errors be corrected? manipulative grammar practice: error correction communicative practice: tolerated free conversation: no error correction --- Which errors should be corrected? global errors stigmatized errors most frequently occurred errors
The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner C. Fries
Those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult Lado
Hierarchy of Difficulty (L1 Eng; L2 Spanish) Type of difficulty L1 L2 Example X por 1. Split X for Y para 2. N ew X grammatical gender 3. Absent X do as a tense carrier X his 4. Coalesced X su Y her 5. Correspondence X X -ing=-ndo
Theoretical basis of CA behaviourist psychology structural linguistics LA ---- product of habit formation SLL ---- a process of overcoming the habits of the native language in order to acquire the new habits of the target language
CAH (contrastive analysis hypothesis) If trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might ve prevented or at least held to a minimum. In this way, the formation of bad habits could be avoided.
5. Interlanguage pragmatics Two main schools of thought in pragmatics: Anglo-American Vs European Continental --- Anglo-American tradition component view of pragmatics defined as the scientific study of meaning central topics of inquiry: deixis implicature presupositon speech act
--- European Continental tradition perspective view of pragmatics defined in a far broader way e.g. Anthropological linguistics Sociolinguistics Psycholonguistics Discourse analysis
Pragmatics constitutes a general functional ( I.e. cognitive, social and cultural ) perspective on linguistic phenomena in relation to their usage in the form of behaviour Verschuren
Pragmatics and interlanguage pragmatics central notion in pragmatic study: speech act --- all the things we do with words when we speak e.g. making apologies making requests expressing gratitude making refusals the performances of the speech acts are the minimal units of human communication
the successful performance of the speech acts in SL the speakers linguistic proficiency the speakers sociopragmatic perception of the speech acts to perform the speech acts properly in SL is demanding linguistic differences between languages sociocultural differences between cultures
the study focus of interlanguage pragmatics the L2 learners realization of certain specific speech acts --- the semantic formulas --- the politeness strategies --- the first language and cultures influences on their performance of the speech acts in the L2 --- the social and psychological factors that affect speech and performance the approach of interlanguage pragmatics contrastive approach language learner and native speaker differences in speech act production and comprehension