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SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof

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1 SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof
SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages

2 Lecture 3 Learner Language Interlanguage
1. The three stages of development in SLA 2. The concept of interlanguage 3. The features of interlanguage 4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA ) 5. Interlanguage pragmatics

3 1. Three stages of development in SLA
1st period ( 1960’s ) behaviourist psychology & structural linguistics scientific backing applied linguistics ( most commonly accepted sense ) CA ( contrastive analysis ) Lado Linguistics across cultures ( 1957 )

4 cognitive psychology & TG linguistics
2nd period ( 1970’s ) cognitive psychology & TG linguistics rift between the applied & theoretical aims of researchers learner---autonomous creator of language systems interlanguage creative construction EA ( error analysis )

5 3rd period ( 1980’s on ) refine models seek closer links between second language research and other disciplines branch out e.g. Interlanguage pragmatics

6 2. The concept of interlanguage
Different terms interlanguage L. Selinker ( 1972 ) approximative systems Nemser ( 1971 ) transitional competence Corder ( 1971 ) Definition the systematic knowledge of an L2 which is independent of both the learner’s L1 and the target language

7 Second language development should be seen as a succession of evolving systems that took the learner nearer and nearer to target system and further and further from the source system. The source system was defined as that language which is creating the interference

8 3. The features of interlanguage
--- interlanguage is permeable open to amendment All the language systems are permeable difference: loss of permeability ( fossilization ) --- interlanguage is dynamic not static continually evolving basckslide

9 L TL IL IL IL IL IL5 IL6 --- interlanguage is systematic rule-governed not select rules haphazardly but in predictable ways

10 Fossilization --- a lack of change in interlanguage patterns
Many learners ( 95% ) fail to reach target language competence, i.e., fail to reach the end of the interlanguage continuum. They stop learning when their interlanguage contains at least some rules different from those of the target language system.

11 Factors contributing to the construction of IL
--- overgeneralization --- simplification --- communication-based ( strategies for compensation for missing knowledge ) --- induced errors

12 4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA ) Steps of EA ( Corder, 1974 )
--- collection of a sample of learner language --- identification of errors --- description of errors --- explanation of errors --- evaluation of errors

13  collection of a sample of learner language
 identification of errors types of errors --- slip; mistake --- errors --- social gaffes the focus of EA: errors

14  description of errors
errors are described in two categories: --- linguistic categories e.g. the skeleton of English clauses the auxiliary system passive sentences temporal conjunctions more general categories ( morphology, syntax, vocabulary etc )

15 --- surface strategy taxonomy
omission e.g *She sleeping. addition e.g. * She didn’t went there. misformation e.g. * The dog ated the chicken. misordering e.g. * What daddy is doing.

16  explanation of errors
interlingual competence intralingual ( errors ) unique errors processing performance problems ( mistakes ) communication strategies

17  interlingual errors e.g. The building is tall. The man is tall.
The building is high. * The man is high.  intralingual errors e.g. We completed the task. They worked out a problem. * I drawed a picture.

18  unique errors e.g. This is a book. This is a desk.
* This house is a white. * She is a standing.  communication strategies e.g. They toast one another. He invites him to drink. air-cooler --- air-conditioner

19  evaluation of errors Problems with EA effect on the person addressed
comprehension or affective response Problems with EA --- fail to see the whole picture of language learning --- difficult to identify the source of errors --- fail to point out other strategies or problems --- focus only on speaking & writing, not on listening & reading

20 Notes on error correction
--- Should errors be corrected? learning: errors should be corrected acquisition: error correction is of no use --- When should errors be corrected? manipulative grammar practice: error correction communicative practice: tolerated free conversation: no error correction --- Which errors should be corrected? global errors stigmatized errors most frequently occurred errors

21 The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner. ---- C. Fries

22 Those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult. ---- Lado

23 Hierarchy of Difficulty (L1 Eng; L2 Spanish)
Type of difficulty L L Example X por Split X for Y para New  X grammatical gender 3. Absent X  “do” as a tense carrier X his 4. Coalesced X su Y her 5. Correspondence X X ing=-ndo

24 Theoretical basis of CA behaviourist psychology
structural linguistics LA product of habit formation SLL ---- a process of overcoming the habits of the native language in order to acquire the new habits of the target language

25 CAH (contrastive analysis hypothesis)
If trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might ve prevented or at least held to a minimum. In this way, the formation of bad habits could be avoided.

26 5. Interlanguage pragmatics
 Two main schools of thought in pragmatics: Anglo-American Vs European Continental --- Anglo-American tradition component view of pragmatics defined as the scientific study of meaning central topics of inquiry: deixis implicature presupositon speech act

27 --- European Continental tradition
perspective view of pragmatics defined in a far broader way e.g. Anthropological linguistics Sociolinguistics Psycholonguistics Discourse analysis

28 Pragmatics constitutes a general functional ( I. e
Pragmatics constitutes a general functional ( I.e. cognitive, social and cultural ) perspective on linguistic phenomena in relation to their usage in the form of behaviour. ---- Verschuren

29  Pragmatics and interlanguage pragmatics
central notion in pragmatic study: speech act --- all the things we do with words when we speak e.g. making apologies making requests expressing gratitude making refusals the performances of the speech acts are the minimal units of human communication

30 the successful performance of the speech acts in SL
the speaker’s linguistic proficiency the speaker’s sociopragmatic perception of the speech acts to perform the speech acts properly in SL is demanding linguistic differences between languages sociocultural differences between cultures

31  the study focus of interlanguage pragmatics
the L2 learners’ realization of certain specific speech acts --- the semantic formulas --- the politeness strategies --- the first language and culture’s influences on their performance of the speech acts in the L2 --- the social and psychological factors that affect speech and performance  the approach of interlanguage pragmatics contrastive approach language learner and native speaker differences in speech act production and comprehension

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