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An Introduction to ENERGY Mill Creek High School Mr. Burrows.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to ENERGY Mill Creek High School Mr. Burrows."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to ENERGY Mill Creek High School Mr. Burrows

2 Objectives Recognize types of energy surrounding us Identify renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible energy sources Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy Identify the 6 forms of energy Describe history of energy consumption in USA

3 Objectives Identify sectors of society associated with energy consumption Identify energy consumption trends in USA Discuss efficiency vs. conservation Define law of entropy Recognize reasons for growth in energy &power demands Recognize factors that influence exportation and development of different energy sources

4 Why do we learn about Energy? It has shaped YOUR society It has shaped YOUR world Traditional sources WILL near depletion in your lifetime. YOU will have to make important decisions about energy! It is effects and is affected by politics, economics, and the environment.

5 Energy Energy: The ability to do work It is often overlooked because we measure the work but dont consider the energy source We must consider the source

6 Energy Groups Renewable energy: Resources that can be replaced once used They can be quickly regenerated Examples: Wood Cornstalks Sugarcane

7 Energy Groups Nonrenewable Energy: Cannot be replaced once used Example: Fossil fuels-take 100s of 1000s of years to make Uranium: is mined like coal for nuclear reactors

8 Energy Groups Inexhaustible Energy: Those that will never run out. (for millions of years) Examples: Sun Wind Waves

9 Types of Energy Potential Energy: is energy waiting to happen Gasoline: Can produce lots of power if handled properly Water behind a dam: Does not produce power until released

10 Types of Energy Kinetic Energy: is energy in motion Examples: Wind: that moves to turn a windmill Water moving to turn a turbine Radiant energy from the sun

11 6 Forms of Energy Light energy: is visible to the eye Very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum Heat energy: (infrared) longer wavelength than light energy. Does not pass as easily through glass

12 6 Forms of Energy Mechanical energy: produced by mechanical devices gears, pulleys, levers, engines, etc Chemical energy: potential energy locked within a substance Example: 50-lb of oak may have the same chemical energy as 1 gallon of heating oil.

13 6 Forms of Energy Electrical Energy: associated with the flow of electrons Nuclear Energy: associated with the power in the atom. When was it first harnessed? Why? Now it is used to generate power

14 Measuring Energy British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the basic unit of heat energy Very small amount of energy Roughly the amount of energy given off by one burning wooden match All other forms of energy can be related to the BTUs they can produce

15 One Heating Unit Equals

16 BTU Related Measurements 1 Heating Unit = 100,000 BTUs Used for measuring larger energy used like structural heating 1 Quad = 1-quadrillion BTUs 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTUs Used for measuring very large energy consumption like cities, continents, etc

17 World Energy Consumption

18 Early American Energy Primary Energy Sources Wind Water Wood Industry build on waterways Farmers used wind power to draw water Wood was used to produce heat

19 1800s Energy in USA Inventions of the steam engine Steam boat, steam locomotives Coal replace wood as primary energy source Why? Coal more chemical energy 15lb of coal = 20-50lb of wood

20 1900s Energy in USA Internal combustion engine was perfected Americans began to depend on cars Gasoline contains more energy than coal

21 OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Formed in 1960 Group of nations committed to the strength and success of oil market.

22 1970s Oil Embargo Embargo: limiting of trade for political reasons. To punish USA in 1970s for using too much oil, OPEC limited oil sales USA started to look to efficiency and conservation Smaller engines Better use of existing oil supplies

23 What About the Future? Energy Information Administration estimates a 50% increase in world energy consumption by Majority comes from Fossil Fuels

24 Why Fossil Fuels? Yield more energy per volume than many other forms Created millions of jobs in the USA Keep USA engaged in world economy

25 Energy Conversion Energy Conversion: Changing of one form of energy into another Electric motor-converts electrical energy to mechanical (rotation) Furnace-converts potential energy (in gas) to kinetic energy (heat) Solar collector-converts light energy to heat.

26 Efficiency Efficiency: Measure of the extent to which an energy form is usefully converted to another form. Furnaces- some convert 90% of BTUs in heating oil to heat (very efficient)

27 Efficiency Internal Combustion Engine: historically only converted about 27% of energy in gas to mechanical energy. (terrible) Today: I.C.E. convert about 30% because of advances in technology (better) Where does the other 70% go?

28 Entropy Entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy in a closed system Law of Entropy: whenever an energy form is converted from one form to another, some loss will occur.

29 Energy Efficiencies

30 Energy and the Environment Acid rain: result of burning fossil fuels Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Nitrous Oxide (NO 2 ) Sulfur Oxides (SO 2 ) Condenses in atmosphere and falls with rain Devastates forests, pollutes ponds, rivers, streams, Kill fish

31 Energy and the Environment Greenhouse effect – layer of greenhouse gasses (from fossil fuels) prevent heat from sun from escaping into space Raises Earths temp. (global warming) May result in… Melting of ice caps Altering of shorelines Changes in weather patterns

32 Recycling If Mill Creek recycles 1-ton of paper it will save: 6953 gallons of water 463 gallons of oil 587lb of air pollution 4077 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity This is because of the energy saved to produce a recycled product.

33 Conservation vs. Efficiency Efficiency = Saving energy by getting the most possible work out of each unit ie. Efficient light bulbs Another example? Conservation= Saving energy by limiting the use of it ie. Turning off a normal (incandescent) light Another example?

34 Objectives Recognize types of energy surrounding us Identify renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible energy sources Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy Identify the 6 forms of energy Describe history of energy consumption in USA

35 Objectives Identify sectors of society associated with energy consumption Identify energy consumption trends in USA Discuss efficiency vs. conservation Define law of entropy Recognize reasons for growth in energy &power demands Recognize factors that influence exportation and development of different energy sources


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