Presentation on theme: "SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof"— Presentation transcript:
1SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages
2Lecture 8 Classroom instruction 1. Popular ideas about language learning:Facts & opinions2. Five proposals for classroom teaching
31. Popular ideas about language learning: Facts & opinions 1) Languages are learned mainly through imitationdifficult to find support for the argument--- learners produce many novel sentences--- learners do not simply internalize a great list of imitated and memorized sentences--- imitation does play some role in languagelearning ( selectively imitate )
4--- the same case with second language learning produce novel sentencesbenefit from imitationpronunciation & intonation2) Parents usually correct young children whenthey make grammatical errors--- considerable variation in the extentbased partly on the children’s agebased partly on parents’ own sociolinguisticbackground
53) People with high IQs are good language learners intelligence measured by IQpredictor for success in leaning about languagein natural language learning settings/classroomsinteractive language useBICSa wide variety of intellectual abilities
6general view: those who want to learn tend to do better 4) The most important factor in second language acquisition success is motivationgeneral view: those who want to learn tend to do better--- guard against too strong an interpretation of this viewhighly motivated learners encounter great difficulties in improving their mastery of the language--- teachers have no influence over a learner’s intrinsic motivation for learning a second language the principal way to influence learner’s motivationmake the classroom a supportive environment
7depend on the objectives of the language program 5) The earlier a second language is introduced in school programs, the greater the likelihood of success in learningdepend on the objectives of the language program--- native-like performance in SLdesirable to begin as early as possibledisadvantage: subtractive bilingualism lasting negative consequences--- basic communicative skill for all studentsmore efficient to begin later
8Attentionall school programs should be based on realistic estimates of how long it takes to learn a second languagedrip-feed approachfrustration
9--- L1 transfer: one source of errors 6) Most of the mistakes which second language learners make are due to interference from their first language--- L1 transfer: one source of errors( interlingual errors )--- overgeneralization of target-language rules( intralingual errors )--- CAH: similarities facilitate learningdifferences impede learningresearch findings:different aspects will not necessarily be acquired later or with moredifficulty than similar aspects
10--- language learning is not simply linear in its development 7) Teachers should present grammatical rules one at a time, and learners should practise examples of each one before going on to another--- language learning is not simply linear in its development learners are incorporating new information aboutthe language into their own system of rules language development is not just adding rule afterrule, but integrating new rules into existing system ofrules
11--- defects of some structure-based approaches false assumption:second language development is linearisolated presentation and practice of structurefail to see how different language featurescompare and contrast in normal language use
12--- as a rule, focus on meaning rather than form significance: children cannot depend on consistent corrective feedback in order to learn the basic structure of their language. children appear to be able to acquire the adult form of the language with little or no explicit feedback--- the case for SL learners: more complexwithout corrective feedback and guidance, SLlearners may persist in using certain ungrammaticalforms for years
13learners follow a natural route 8) Teachers should teach simple language structures before complex oneslearners follow a natural route--- neither necessary nor desirable to restrict learners’ exposure to certain linguistic structures--- SL learners benefit from modified inputteachers appear to increase the complexity of theirlanguage intuitively as the learner’s proficiencyincreases
149) Learners’ errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent the formation of bad habitserrors are a natural part of language learning--- reveal the patterns of learners’ developing interlanguage systemsovergeneralizationinappropriate L1 transfer--- when correcting global errors, don’t expect learners to adopt the correct form or structure immediately or consistentlycorrection for errors based on developmental patternuseful only when the learner is ready for it
1510) Teachers should use materials that expose students only to language structures which they have already been taughtavailability of comprehensible inputnegative consequences:--- a loss of motivation if students are not sufficiently challenged--- restricting students to step-by-step exposure to the languageextends their dependencyNotice the fact:learners who successfully acquire English outside classroomsexposure to a variety of forms and structures not mastered
1611) When learners are allowed to interact freely ( e. g 11) When learners are allowed to interact freely ( e.g., in group or pair activities ), they learn each others’ mistakesGroup work--- a valuable addition to the variety of activities encouraging & promoting SLAsurprising findings:--- learners make less errors when talking to peers--- learners cannot help each other with error correction when with peers
1712) Students learn what they are taught two cases --- students don’t learn everything they are taughtnatural route/sequence--- students don’t only learn what they are taughtthey learn much more than they are taughtinternal learning mechanisminternalizing rules
182. Five proposals for classroom teaching 1) Get it right from the beginning2) Say what you mean and mean what you say3) Just listen … and read4) Teach what is teachable5) Get it right in the end
191) Get it right from the beginning grammar translation & audiolingual approachesaccuracy fluencyfeatures: Errors are frequently corrected Input is structurally graded, simplified and sequenced Learning is often limited to only a few hours a week The teacher is often the only native or proficient speaker Students experience a limited range of language discourse types Students often feel great pressure to speak or write the SL and to do so correctly from the very beginning Teachers often use the learners’ native language to give instructions
20Example 1 S1 And uh, in the afternoon, uh, I come home and uh, uh, ( A group of 15-year-old students involved in an exercise based onthe simple present of English verbs )S1 And uh, in the afternoon, uh, I come home and uh, uh,I uh, washing my dog.T I wash.S1 My dog.T Every day you wash your dog?S1 No.S2 Il n’a pas de chien! ( = He doesn’t have a dog! )S1 Non, mais on peut le dire! ( = No, but we can say we do! )
21Example 2 T Repeat after me. Is there any butter in the refrigerator? ( A group of 12-year-old learners of English as a foreign language )T Repeat after me. Is there any butter in the refrigerator?Class Is there any butter in the refrigerator?T There’s very little, Mom.Class There’s very little, Mom.T Are there any tomatoes in the refrigerator?Class Are there any tomatoes in the refrigerator?T There are very few, Mom.Class There are very few, Mom.
22Limitations --- high CALP, low BICS --- monitor overusers --- high affective filter, more inhibited--- less/low risk-taking,unwillingness to communicate( Cf, WTC )
232) Say what you mean and mean what you say theoretical basis: the interactionist viewemphasis: the necessity for learners to haveaccess to meaningful and comprehensible inputconversational interactionsnegotiation of meaningconversational modificationsclarificationconfirmationrepetitionfluency accuracy
24Example 3 S The fish is difficult to wash? ( In examples 3, 4, and 5, a group of 12-year-old students arediscussing with their teacher a questionnaire about their pets)Example 3S The fish is difficult to wash?T Fish is difficult to wash?S Yes.T Fish… Oh, not so difficult. Fish are difficult to wash?!?What’s your uh… ( question ) ?S Do you have an animal? Yes, I do. Do you ever feed it? Yes, r-T Do you know what ‘ feed ’ means?S Ah, no. It’s uh…T To give food to it.
25Example 4 Example 5 T How often do you walk your dog? S Never. T Why? S Because I don’t have a dog.Example 5S And what is ‘ feed ’ ?T Feed? To feed the dog?S Yes, but when I don’t have a…T If you don’t have a dog, you skip the question.
26Communicative approach Features: --- limited amount of error correction; meaning is emphasized--- input is simplified and made comrehensible--- a variety of discourse types, use of ‘ real-life ’ materials--- little pressure to perform at high levels of accuracy
273) Just listen … and read assumption: it is not necessary to drill and memorize language forms in order to learn thememphasis:comprehensible input through listening and/orreading activitiescomprehension-based
28Example 7It is the English period at a primary school in a French-speaking area of New Brunswick, Canada. Students ( aged 9-10 ) enter the classroom, which looks very much like a miniature language lab, with individual work spaces arranged around the perimeter of the room. They go to the shelves containing books and audio-cassettes and select the material which they wish to read and listen to during the next 30 minutes. For some of the time the teacher is walking around the classroom, checking that the machines are running smoothly. She does not interact with the students concerning what they are doing. Some of the students are listening with closed eyes; others read actively, pronouncing the words silently. The classroom is almost silent except for the sound of tapes being inserted or removed or chairs scraping as students go to the shelves to select new tapes and books.
29comprehension-based instruction: Comments oncomprehension-based instruction:--- beneficial in the development of basic comprehension and communicative performance in the early stages--- not sufficient to get learners to continue developing their SL abilities to advanced levels
304) Teach what is teachable theoretical basis: teachability hypothesis some linguistic structures develop along a particulardevelopmental pathdevelopmental featuresteachable only in a given sequencevariational featuresteachable at various points in learner languagedeveopment
31Example 8 S1 Is your mother play piano? ( A group of students engaged in ‘ famous person ’ interview )S1 Is your mother play piano?T ‘ Is your mother play piano? ’? OK. Well, can you say ‘ Is yourmother play piano? ’ or ‘ Is your mother a piano player? ’ ?S1 ‘ Is your mother a piano player? ’S2 No.
32Example 9 Example 10 S1 Is your favorite house a split-level? S2 Yes. ( Interviewing each other about house preferences )S1 Is your favorite house a split-level?S2 Yes.T You’re saying ‘is’ two times dear. ‘ Is your favorite house asplit-level? ’S1 A split-level.T OK.Example 10( ‘ Hide and seek ’ game )S Where the teacher books are?T Where are the teacher’s books?S Where are the tea--the teacher books?
335) Get it right in the end Assumption: learners will do better if they have access tosome form-focused instruction--- similarity to the positions 2 & 3:uphold the view that many language features will beacquired naturally if learners have adequate exposureto the language and a motivation to learn--- similarity to position 4:uphold the view that some things cannot be taught ifthe teaching fails to take the student’s readiness intoaccount
34--- difference from position 4: emphasize the idea:some aspects of language must be taught andmay need to be taught quite explicitly.Guidance are expected to be especially desirable
35Example 11 T Another place to put our adverb? S1 After makes? ( A group of students are engaged in an activity where scrambled sentences are reordered to form sensible ones. The following sentence has been placed on the board: ‘ Sometimes my mother makes good cakes ’. )T Another place to put our adverb?S1 After makes?T After makes.S2 Before good?T My mother makes sometimes good cakes.S3 No.T No, we can’t do that. It sounds yucky.S Yucky!T Disgusting. Horrible. Right?S Horrible!
36--- difference from position 1: emphasize the idea:it is appropriate for learners to engage inmeaningful language use from the verybeginning--- difference from positions 2 & 3:not assumed that comprehensible input andmeaningful interaction will be enough to bringlearners to high levels of accuracy & fluency
37Claims of teachability view: --- some features of the language can be taught successfully at various points in the learners’ development, other features develop according to the learners’ internal schedule--- although learners may be able to produce more advanced forms on tests or in very restricted pedagogical exercises, instruction cannot change the ‘ natural ’ developmental course