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Making Safety A Culture, Not Just an Initiative Sherry R. Perdue, Ph.D. Safety Performance Solutions 610 N. Main Street Suite 228 Blacksburg, VA 24060.

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Presentation on theme: "Making Safety A Culture, Not Just an Initiative Sherry R. Perdue, Ph.D. Safety Performance Solutions 610 N. Main Street Suite 228 Blacksburg, VA 24060."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Safety A Culture, Not Just an Initiative Sherry R. Perdue, Ph.D. Safety Performance Solutions 610 N. Main Street Suite 228 Blacksburg, VA (540)

2 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 2 A TSC Requires A Shift From Dependence to Interdependence. Dependence: Top-Down Condition of Employment Safety for OSHA Disincentives for Outcomes Environment Focused Fault Finding Safety is Important Quick Fix Independence: Bottom-Up Personal Commitment Safety for Self Incentives for Outcomes Behavior Focused Fact Finding Safety is Priority Eventual Fix Interdependence: Empowerment Team Commitment Safety for Others Recognition for Behavior Env./Beh./Person Systems Thinking Safety is a Value Continuous Improvement Dependence Independence Interdependence Safety Achievement Beginning Improving Succeeding Leading 1234

3 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 3 A Total Safety Culture Has Four Characteristics. Safety is held as a value by all employees. Safety is held as a value by all employees. Each individual feels responsible for the safety of their coworkers as well as themselves. Each individual feels responsible for the safety of their coworkers as well as themselves. Each individual is willing and able to go beyond the call of duty on behalf of the safety of others. Each individual is willing and able to go beyond the call of duty on behalf of the safety of others. Each individual routinely performs actively caring and/or safety behaviors for the benefit of others. Each individual routinely performs actively caring and/or safety behaviors for the benefit of others.

4 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 4 Values, Intentions, and Behaviors Arent Always Consistent Values (Should) Intentions (Willing) Behaviors (Do) Percent Agreement...caution coworkers when observing them perform at-risk behaviors. I do... I am willing to... Employees should...

5 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 5 SAFETYCULTURE A TSC Requires Continual Attention to Three Areas. ENVIRONMENT Equipment, Tools, Machines, Housekeeping, Climate, Management Systems BEHAVIOR Putting on PPE, Lifting properly, Following procedures, Locking out power, Cleaning up spills, Sweeping floors, Coaching peers PERSON Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Intelligence, Motives, Attitude, Personality

6 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 6 Actively Caring Is Influenced by Five Person States. Actively Caring Belonging Self-Esteem Optimism Personal Control Self-Effectiveness I care about my teamI care about myself I expect the best I am in control I can do it

7 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 7 The very things that got us here may be the same things that hold us back from getting better.

8 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 8 Total Safety Culture A Call to Arms - Assess safety culture -- Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyones responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a people-based focus

9 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 9 Total Safety Culture A Call to Arms - Assess safety culture -- Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyones responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a people-based focus A Call to Arms

10 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 10 A Safety Culture Survey Measures Employee Perceptions. -Perceptions are reality - Although perceptions may be incorrect, they drive behaviors and establish the culture.

11 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 11 A Safety Culture Survey (SCS) Serves Several Purposes. Identifies strengths and weaknesses in current safety systems to help identify and prioritize areas of focus. Identifies strengths and weaknesses in current safety systems to help identify and prioritize areas of focus. Provides a means to compare performance against a benchmark. Provides a means to compare performance against a benchmark. External (overall, industry) External (overall, industry) Internal (cross-department, cross-facilities, oneself over time) Internal (cross-department, cross-facilities, oneself over time) Provides a performance metric of improvement initiatives (through repeated administration). Provides a performance metric of improvement initiatives (through repeated administration).

12 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 12 A SCS Provides Many Benefits. Provides a proactive measure (v. trailing indicators such as injury stats, workers comp costs and regulatory penalties) Provides a proactive measure (v. trailing indicators such as injury stats, workers comp costs and regulatory penalties) Provides a gap analysis, differentiating perceptions of management and employees Provides a gap analysis, differentiating perceptions of management and employees Provides information to effectively set budget priorities and allocate limited funds (and avoid the shotgun approach) Provides information to effectively set budget priorities and allocate limited funds (and avoid the shotgun approach) Opens lines of communication Opens lines of communication Enhances employee support for change (employees more likely to support change thats based on their input and recommendations) Enhances employee support for change (employees more likely to support change thats based on their input and recommendations) Address requirements for employee involvement and annual program evaluations mandated by OSHA VPP Address requirements for employee involvement and annual program evaluations mandated by OSHA VPP

13 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 13 A SCS Has Benefits Over Other Information Gathering Tools. Gathers information from all or a representative sample. Gathers information from all or a representative sample. Committees, suggestion systems, and even interviews favor the vocal minority Committees, suggestion systems, and even interviews favor the vocal minority Results in better information, as well as empowered workforce. Results in better information, as well as empowered workforce. Gathers sensitive information from employees in a confidential manner (thus encouraging more frank, candid comments). Gathers sensitive information from employees in a confidential manner (thus encouraging more frank, candid comments). Relatively quick, easy, and cost-effective. Relatively quick, easy, and cost-effective.

14 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 14 A SCS Should Measure A Wide Variety of Issues. Management Support for Safety Management Support for Safety Genuine interest in reducing injuries (v. keeping the numbers low) Genuine interest in reducing injuries (v. keeping the numbers low) Willingness to invest resources (i.e., time and money) Willingness to invest resources (i.e., time and money) Ability to balance safety with other KPIs (e.g., productivity, schedule) Ability to balance safety with other KPIs (e.g., productivity, schedule) Peer Support for Safety (Interdependence or Actively Caring) Peer Support for Safety (Interdependence or Actively Caring) Personal Responsibility for Safety Personal Responsibility for Safety

15 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 15 A SCS Should Measure A Wide Variety of Issues. Safety Management Systems, including: Safety Management Systems, including: Incident Reporting & Investigation Incident Reporting & Investigation Discipline Discipline Rewards & Recognition Rewards & Recognition Communication Communication Safety Accountability Safety Accountability Training Training Behavior-based Observation & Feedback process Behavior-based Observation & Feedback process Employee Involvement Employee Involvement Facilities Audits & Inspections Facilities Audits & Inspections

16 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 16 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons. Organization vs. Time vs. Norm Wage vs. Salary vs. Wage Norm vs. Mgt. Norm Wage Mgt. Mgt Norm Wage Norm

17 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 17 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons. Look at the patterns shown by sets of items: Look at the patterns shown by sets of items: Employees should give feedback to peers for at-risk behavior… Employees should give feedback to peers for at-risk behavior… Im willing to give feedback to peers… Im willing to give feedback to peers… I do give feedback to peers… I do give feedback to peers…

18 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 18 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons. Look at the patterns shown by sets of items: Look at the patterns shown by sets of items: Production demands dont override Managers concern for safety. Production demands dont override Managers concern for safety. Production demands dont override Supervisors concern for safety. Production demands dont override Supervisors concern for safety. Organization

19 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 19 Following the Analysis, Leadership Must Set a Clear Agenda for Change. A clear vision (what the desired culture will be like) and objectives A clear vision (what the desired culture will be like) and objectives Agreement of the steps that must be taken Agreement of the steps that must be taken A leadership team that is unified, energized, and prepared to lead the change A leadership team that is unified, energized, and prepared to lead the change A communication strategy to ensure that the message is consistent across the organization A communication strategy to ensure that the message is consistent across the organization

20 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 20 Total Safety Culture A Call to Arms - Assess safety culture -- Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyones responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a people-based focus Establish Expectations

21 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 21 Poorly Defined Expectations Result In Two Problems. Leaders dont always understand what they can and should do to support safety. Leaders dont always understand what they can and should do to support safety. The organization doesnt recognize or reward those who perform well or help develop those who do not. The organization doesnt recognize or reward those who perform well or help develop those who do not. What Gets Measured Gets Done. What Gets Measured Gets Done.

22 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 22 SCS Results Often Reveal Low Supervisor Support for Safety. Supervisors sometimes encourage employees to overlook hazards to get the job done. Employees are given feedback by supervisors if they are observed working unsafely. I am encouraged to stop a job is a safety hazard is identified. Work productivity and quality usually have a higher priority than work safety.

23 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 23 Further Study Often Reveals Supervisors Have Poorly-Defined Safety Responsibilities. Give monthly safety meeting talk. Give monthly safety meeting talk. Make sure everybodys wearing their PPE. Make sure everybodys wearing their PPE. Stop an employee if you see them breaking a safety rule. Stop an employee if you see them breaking a safety rule. Send people to training when required. Send people to training when required. Help new employees or transfers learn the safety rules. Help new employees or transfers learn the safety rules. Keep the injury rate in your group as low as possible. Keep the injury rate in your group as low as possible.

24 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 24 Use Three Steps to Develop Supervisor Accountabilities. Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement A representative team develops a list of items describing how supervisors can be TSC Change Agents. A representative team develops a list of items describing how supervisors can be TSC Change Agents. The list is reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. The list is reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation

25 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 25 The Skill Set Typically Contains Many Categories. 1.Support and reward employee participation in safety activities. 2.Set safety goals and expectations with employees. 3.Provide regular formal and informal safety performance feedback. 4.Model appropriate safety-related behaviors. 5.Solicit and encourage employee input on safety-related matters. 6.Demonstrate fact-finding rather than fault-finding for safety concerns. 7.Communicate safety-related information, focusing on process measures, to employees regularly. 8.Show visible support for safety policies, rules, procedures, and regulations (regardless of personal opinion). 9.Demonstrate appropriate balance between safety and other performance measures. 10.Focus on safety processes rather than outcomes. 11.Foster teamwork within the group.

26 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 26 Each Category Should be Defined in Objective, Observable, Behaviors. A. Support and reward employee participation in safety activities Behavioral Observation and Feedback Process (BOFP) Behavioral Observation and Feedback Process (BOFP) Work with BOFP committee member(s) to establish goals for your group. Work with BOFP committee member(s) to establish goals for your group. Schedule time for observations every week. Schedule time for observations every week. Allow/encourage BOFP meetings. Allow/encourage BOFP meetings. Participate in (or lead) ABC analyses. Participate in (or lead) ABC analyses. Request BOFP observations for specific operations or jobs and during outages or turnarounds. Request BOFP observations for specific operations or jobs and during outages or turnarounds. Request BOFP observations be performed on you. Request BOFP observations be performed on you. Review (or ask BOFP participant to review) BOFP progress reports at monthly safety meetings. Review (or ask BOFP participant to review) BOFP progress reports at monthly safety meetings. Recognize individual contributions toward BOFP (privately and publicly). Recognize individual contributions toward BOFP (privately and publicly). Recognize overall BOFP process accomplishments. Recognize overall BOFP process accomplishments. Keep up-to-date on pertinent BOFP data, including: Keep up-to-date on pertinent BOFP data, including: Group members who are trained observers.

27 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 27 Use Three Steps to Develop Supervisor Accountabilities. Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement A diagonal cross-sectional team developed a list of items (skill set) describing the ways FLSs can be TSC Change Agents. A diagonal cross-sectional team developed a list of items (skill set) describing the ways FLSs can be TSC Change Agents. The list was reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. The list was reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation

28 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 28 Employee Engagement is Critical to Achieve a TSC. Employees know about unsafe conditions. Employees know about unsafe conditions. Employees know when and where the at-risk behaviors occur. Employees know when and where the at-risk behaviors occur. Employees know more about peers feelings, attitudes, and emotions which may impact safety. Employees know more about peers feelings, attitudes, and emotions which may impact safety. Employees are in the best position to use the behavior-change strategies on a daily basis. Employees are in the best position to use the behavior-change strategies on a daily basis. Peer support (peer pressure) is an extremely powerful motivator. Peer support (peer pressure) is an extremely powerful motivator. Participation fosters ownership. Participation fosters ownership.

29 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 29 Involvement Increases the Generalization of Safe Behavior. Increase Increase NoChange* Increase Involved Uninvolved Two Groups Target OtherBehavior

30 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 30 Employees Should Contribute In Ways that Match Their Skills and Interests. Conducting a VHS Audit An individual achieving a positive score on a VHS audit A department achieving an average positive score on a VHS audit Achieving a positive grade on Company Safety Directives Attending a optional safety meeting or safety training Serving on a safety committee Passing a knowledge check after training Answering a series of questions correctly during a Knowledge Check Audit Leading a group safety meeting Conducting or reviewing a JSA, JHA, or SOP Participating in an incident investigation Reporting a qualifying near miss or safety suggestion Average time to safety work order closure Conducting a safety/housekeeping audit or vehicle inspection Score on a housekeeping audit Sharing injury/near miss at safety meeting Completing Defensive Driving course or EMT/First responder certification Conducting an Ergonomic job evaluation/modification

31 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 31 Total Safety Culture A Call to Arms - Assess safety culture -- Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyones responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a people-based focus Develop Safety Leadership

32 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 32 Total Safety Culture A Call to Arms - Assess safety culture -- Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyones responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a people-based focus Align Safety Systems

33 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 33 Align Safety Systems All systems should accomplish their primary objectives in a way that fosters a TSC. Safety-Related Discipline Safety Committees Audits and Inspections Safety Communication Incident Reporting and Analysis Safety Policies & Procedures Observation and Feedback Safety Accountability Systems Reward and Recognition Systems S&H Measurement Systems

34 Case Study 1 Safety and Health Measurement System

35 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 35 Visibility Boards Are Used to Manage Key Performance Indicators. Fabrication Department Schedule Quality Efficiency Budget Safety

36 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 36 Monthly Safety Topic: Fall Protection Days Since Last Lost Time Injury 41 The Visibility Board for Safety Contained Little Useful Information. Safety

37 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 37 Incident Statistics Are Not Sufficient Indicators of Safety Performance. Polluted (influenced by): Polluted (influenced by): At-risk Behaviors and Conditions At-risk Behaviors and Conditions Uncontrollable Events Uncontrollable Events Reporting Practices Reporting Practices Record-Keeping Practices Record-Keeping Practices Medical Management and Return-to-Work Practices Medical Management and Return-to-Work Practices Trailing vs. Leading Trailing vs. Leading Non-diagnostic: tell us how things are going, but do not indicate how to improve. Non-diagnostic: tell us how things are going, but do not indicate how to improve.

38 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 38 Emphasis on Outcome Measures Damages the Safety Culture. Encourages (and rewards) underreporting. Encourages (and rewards) underreporting. Fosters a lack of confidence in managements commitment to employee safety. Fosters a lack of confidence in managements commitment to employee safety. Stifles employee involvement and personal accountability. Stifles employee involvement and personal accountability. Failure oriented: breeds learned helplessness. Failure oriented: breeds learned helplessness. Precludes system improvements Precludes system improvements Fosters a fix the symptom, not fix the system mentality Fosters a fix the symptom, not fix the system mentality Encourages knee-jerk reactions (i.e., tampering) Encourages knee-jerk reactions (i.e., tampering)

39 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 39 Over-Emphasis on Outcome Measures Damages Employee Perceptions. With crippled limbs and mangled feet, a million man-hours we did meet; With records kept such as these, well reach a zillion itll be a breeze; Rewards are for achievements met, but we aint reached a million yet; Their safety program is a sham, As for you and me? They dont give a damn. - Hourly employee, Chemical processing plant

40 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 40 Safety Process Measures Provide Many Benefits. Provide early identification of system problems. Provide early identification of system problems. Track genuine change, improvement. Track genuine change, improvement. Identify opportunities for injury prevention. Identify opportunities for injury prevention. Encourage active involvement (engagement). Encourage active involvement (engagement). Foster sense of personal control. Foster sense of personal control. Builds self-esteem and group cohesion. Builds self-esteem and group cohesion.

41 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 41 Safety Metrics Were Chosen To Reflect Performance of Key Safety Processes. Ergonomic job evaluation/modification Ergonomic job evaluation/modification Behavioral observation and feedback Behavioral observation and feedback Safety inspections Safety inspections Incident reporting and analysis Incident reporting and analysis Safety suggestions / near miss reporting Safety suggestions / near miss reporting Safety training Safety training Safety meetings Safety meetings Safety work orders Safety work orders Safety committees Safety committees

42 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 42 Process Measures Should Include Quantitative and Qualitative Measures. Safety Audit Process Safety Audit Process Quantitative Measures: Quantitative Measures: Number of safety audits completed Number of safety audits completed Percentage of audits involving managers; hourly employees Percentage of audits involving managers; hourly employees Number of action items identified; completed Number of action items identified; completed Average time-to-closure on action items Average time-to-closure on action items Qualitative Measures: Qualitative Measures: Accuracy of audits (via second observer reliability) Accuracy of audits (via second observer reliability) Significance of issues identified Significance of issues identified Effectiveness of solutions implemented Effectiveness of solutions implemented Employee perceptions (survey) Employee perceptions (survey)

43 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 43 The New Visibility Boards Are Information Rich. Safety Other Activities vs. Goal Monthly training74% Safety audit100% AI Close-out68% JSA Review23% Processes ERGONOMICS Evaluated Total Processes # Concerns # AIs in # AIs # AIs # %OK Not OK Identified Progress Completed Open % 28% Safety Suggestions # Received: 18 # Addressable: 16 # Complete: 11 # in Progress: 1 # Open: 4 Near Miss/Incident Analyses Total # : 4 Closed out: 3 (75%) Resulting AIs: 11 Closed out: 6 (55%) Avg Time 17 days BBS Highlighted Activities ______________________

44 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 44 The Board Is Reviewed Weekly With Management and Employees.

45 Case Study 2 Incident Investigation System Redesign

46 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 46 Management Questioned the Effectiveness of their Process Where Human Behavior was Involved. Root Causes ? ? ? ? ?

47 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 47 The Current Process Revealed Several Weaknesses. Little employee involvement during analysis or follow-up Little employee involvement during analysis or follow-up No expertise or training provided in Psychology or Human Factors No expertise or training provided in Psychology or Human Factors No behavior analysis tools used (e.g., ABC Analysis, Task Analysis) No behavior analysis tools used (e.g., ABC Analysis, Task Analysis) Root causes identified often included Employee Action. ThereforeCounsel Employee or Discipline Employee were common. Root causes identified often included Employee Action. ThereforeCounsel Employee or Discipline Employee were common. Communication was less than adequate Communication was less than adequate Of the incident Of the incident Of the analysis results Of the analysis results Of recommended follow-up actions Of recommended follow-up actions Of the completion of follow-up actions Of the completion of follow-up actions Generalization of follow-up actions was infrequent. Generalization of follow-up actions was infrequent.

48 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 48 Incomplete Analysis Leads to a Feeling of Blame. Human Error Implies… Incompetent Careless Lazy Unmotivated Inattentive Clumsy

49 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 49 Survey Results Highlighted A Revealing Pattern. Salaried who have been involved in incident investigations Hourly who have been involved in incident investigations Hourly who have NOT been involved in incident investigations VerySomewhatNeitherSomewhatVery VerySomewhatNeitherSomewhatVery VerySomewhatNeitherSomewhatVery Blame... Problem Solving...

50 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 50 Incomplete Analysis & Wrong Conclusions Incomplete Information Disclosure Feelings of Blame Ineffective Countermeasures

51 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 51 Negative Perceptions Leads to Under-Reporting. 60% of employees think they would be blamed. 60% of employees think they would be blamed. 47% believe they or a coworker will be disciplined. 47% believe they or a coworker will be disciplined. 52% believe the incident would effect them in the future. 52% believe the incident would effect them in the future. 60% would not report an incident if they could avoid doing so. 60% would not report an incident if they could avoid doing so.

52 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 52 The Incident Analysis Process Was Redesigned to Meet Two Goals. Better determine the immediate causes and root causes (especially those influencing human behavior) which allowed the incident to occur so effective counter-measures can be taken to reduce future injury risk. Better determine the immediate causes and root causes (especially those influencing human behavior) which allowed the incident to occur so effective counter-measures can be taken to reduce future injury risk. Encourage the full and open participation of all employees by eliminating any fault-finding, adversarial atmosphere. Encourage the full and open participation of all employees by eliminating any fault-finding, adversarial atmosphere.

53 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 53 Incident Analysis Team Training Focused on Human Elements. Interviewing strategies and techniques Interviewing strategies and techniques Factors influencing human performance Factors influencing human performance Human error Human error Risky behavior Risky behavior Analytical investigation techniques (including behavior analysis tools) Analytical investigation techniques (including behavior analysis tools)

54 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 54 Unsafe Behavior is Often the Result of System Influences. No At-Risk Behavior Yes Did operator purposefully perform a behavior which s/he knew to be unsafe? Human ErrorRisky Behavior Individual Variance System-Induced Human Error System-Encouraged Behavior Willful Negligence Act of sabotage

55 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 55 A TSC Requires A Shift From Dependence to Interdependence. Dependence: Top-Down Condition of Employment Safety for OSHA Disincentives for Outcomes Environment Focused Fault Finding Safety is Important Quick Fix Independence: Bottom-Up Personal Commitment Safety for Self Incentives for Outcomes Behavior Focused Fact Finding Safety is Priority Eventual Fix Interdependence: Empowerment Team Commitment Safety for Others Recognition for Behavior Env./Beh./Person Systems Thinking Safety is a Value Continuous Improvement Dependence Independence Interdependence Safety Achievement Beginning Improving Succeeding Leading 1234

56 ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06) 56 Questions ??


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