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Making Safety A Culture, Not Just an Initiative

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1 Making Safety A Culture, Not Just an Initiative
Proper use of a BOFP can help a culture achieve a Total Safety Culture (TSC). In this workshop for leaders, we’ll discuss the key concepts behind a behavioral observation and feedback process (BOFP) and the leaders’ role in supporting that process. In addition, we’ll review other ways in which leaders can help the culture achieve a TSC. Sherry R. Perdue, Ph.D. Safety Performance Solutions 610 N. Main Street Suite Blacksburg, VA 24060 (540)

2 A TSC Requires A Shift From Dependence to Interdependence.
Safety Achievement Interdependence Independence Leading Succeeding Essentially, what we’re suggesting is that we need to continue to shift our perspective on how to manage safety. Forty to fifty years ago within American industry in general, we tended to have a philosophy of “dependence” when it came to safety. That is, it was the company’s responsibility to reduce or eliminate the safety hazards within the workplace. And with that approach, tremendous improvements were made. We realized, however, that that approach will only achieve a certain level of safety success. We then recognized the need to foster more ownership for one’s own safety among the workplace, essentially a perspective of “independence”. Again, tremendous strides were made, but many organizations again found themselves sitting on a plateau. What we’re suggesting now is that in order to continue to make safety improvements we need to again change our perspective, this time we need to cultivate a sense of “interdependence”. That is, people need to be responsible for their own and others’ safety. Everyone needs to “Actively Care”. Dependence Improving Beginning 1 2 3 4 Dependence: Top-Down Condition of Employment Safety for OSHA Disincentives for Outcomes Environment Focused Fault Finding Safety is Important Quick Fix Independence: Bottom-Up Personal Commitment Safety for Self Incentives for Outcomes Behavior Focused Fact Finding Safety is Priority Eventual Fix Interdependence: Empowerment Team Commitment Safety for Others Recognition for Behavior Env./Beh./Person Systems Thinking Safety is a Value Continuous Improvement ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

3 A Total Safety Culture Has Four Characteristics.
Safety is held as a value by all employees. Each individual feels responsible for the safety of their coworkers as well as themselves. Each individual is willing and able to “go beyond the call of duty” on behalf of the safety of others. Each individual routinely performs actively caring and/or safety behaviors for the benefit of others. We’ve tried to summarize what is meant by a Total Safety Culture, and have done so through these 4 characteristics. . First, safety is not considered a priority that can be shifted, but rather a value that is linked to every work task performed. Second, all employees feel responsible for their coworkers’ safety as well as their own. Third, each individual is willing and able to “go beyond the call of duty” for the safety of others. That is, they have the internal person states necessary, and the culture supports, people acting on the responsibility they feel for others’ safety. (See the illustration on the following slide as an example. You may wish to show the next slide and then return to this slide before discussing the next point.) As a result, each individual routinely performs Actively CaringTM and/or other safety behaviors for the benefit of others. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

4 Values, Intentions, and Behaviors Aren’t Always Consistent.
...caution coworkers when observing them perform at-risk behaviors.” “I do ... “I am willing to ... “Employees should ... It is not uncommon for individuals to fail to act on the sense of responsibility they feel for the safety of others. Shown here is an example from a survey administered to employees of many different organizations which illustrates this point. In this example, three separate survey items address the issue of “cautioning a coworker about an at-risk behavior being performed”: “Employees should caution coworkers when observed performing at-risk behaviors.” “I am willing to caution coworkers when observed performing at-risk behaviors.” “I do caution coworkers when observed performing at-risk behaviors.” In nearly every organization, the same pattern of responses shown here has emerged. Nearly all employees feel they should look after coworkers’ safety and are willing to do it, but they do not always perform the behavior when there may be opportunities to do so. The culture simply does not support and encourage that type of behavior, failing to truly encourage everyone to act on the sense of responsibility they feel for others. To continue to improve safety performance, organizations must work to create a culture where employees feel comfortable doing these types of behaviors on behalf of each others’ safety. 20 40 60 80 100 Values (Should) Intentions (Willing) Behaviors (Do) Percent Agreement ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

5 A TSC Requires Continual Attention to Three Areas.
SAFETY CULTURE PERSON Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Intelligence, Motives, Attitude, Personality ENVIRONMENT Equipment, Tools, Machines, Housekeeping, Climate, Management Systems The things that influence safety in an organization can be classified into three areas. Most safety programs address environmental issues. A TSC addresses all three areas but concentrates specifically on the person and behavior areas. Review each of the three areas: Environment: things like equipment and tools as well as management systems. Behavior: what a person does. They’re outside a person— you can see and measure these. Person: people’s feelings, attitudes, and beliefs as well as their knowledge, skills, abilities. They’re inside a person; you can’t see these and they’re hard to measure. In most organizations, more than 90% of all injuries are attributable, at least in part, to human behavior. However, most organizations concentrate their safety improvement efforts on the environment. In a TSC, we use strategies to influence each of these areas. We use tools and techniques to encourage and reward people for their efforts to work safely. We use strategies to affect people’s understanding and attitudes about safety and risk, as well as strategies to affect how people feel about themselves and their coworkers so they’ll be more willing to go out of their way on behalf of everyone's safety. BEHAVIOR Putting on PPE, Lifting properly, Following procedures, Locking out power, Cleaning up spills, Sweeping floors, Coaching peers ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

6 Actively Caring Is Influenced by Five Person States.
Self-Effectiveness “I can do it” Personal Control Optimism “I am in control” So in order to positively influence the “Person Side” of the triangle, we need to pay attention to HOW we influence the behavior side. That is, we need to try to influence behavior in a way that will positively influence the person’s feelings and attitudes. But because these internal person states are SO important in creating an “Actively Caring” culture, we need to also look for other ways as well. Research shows that there are primarily five factors that affect how likely people are to practice actively caring. These factors reflect how we feel about ourselves, our peers, and our organization; and they influence how likely we are to go beyond the call of duty for the safety of others. Personal control is feeling responsible for and able to influence what goes on around us. Personal control explains the difference between having responsibility and feeling responsible. In other words, it means feeling, "I am in control.” Self-effectiveness is having the resources (e.g., training, time, tools, others help) needed to get the job done safely; "I can do it.” Optimism is believing our efforts positively influence outcomes. Optimists say "I expect the best.”. These three factors make up empowerment or feeling "I can make a difference." Self-Esteem is having a sense of personal value. If we don’t feel good about ourselves, we won’t or can’t make a difference in the lives of others. Self-Esteem is feeling "I am valuable.” Finally, belonging is feeling connected to the people we work with, who make up our team. There is a lot of power in feeling "I belong to a team.” When we feel connected with those around us, we’re more likely to go out of our way on behalf of their safety. Because these factors change from situation to situation, we call them states not traits. States can be built and nurtured in others to increase the likelihood they will actively care. To help others become more involved in actively caring for safety, we must work to increase each of these five factors in ourselves and in those around us. Actively Caring “I expect the best” Self-Esteem Belonging “I care about myself” “I care about my team” ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

7 “The very things that got us here may be the same things that hold us back from getting better.”
©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

8 Total Safety Culture Develop Safety Leadership A ‘Call to Arms’
- Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety A ‘Call to Arms’ Assess safety culture - Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyone’s responsibility Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a ‘people-based’ focus Total Safety Culture Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

9 A “Call to Arms” Total Safety Culture A ‘Call to Arms’
Assess safety culture - Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyone’s responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a ‘people-based’ focus Total Safety Culture Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

10 A Safety Culture Survey Measures Employee Perceptions.
-Perceptions are “reality” Although perceptions may be incorrect, they drive behaviors and establish the culture. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

11 A Safety Culture Survey (SCS) Serves Several Purposes.
Identifies strengths and weaknesses in current safety systems to help identify and prioritize areas of focus. Provides a means to compare performance against a benchmark. External (overall, industry) Internal (cross-department, cross-facilities, oneself over time) Provides a performance metric of improvement initiatives (through repeated administration). ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

12 A SCS Provides Many Benefits.
Provides a proactive measure (v. trailing indicators such as injury stats, workers’ comp costs and regulatory penalties) Provides a gap analysis, differentiating perceptions of management and employees Provides information to effectively set budget priorities and allocate limited funds (and avoid the shotgun approach) Opens lines of communication Enhances employee support for change (employees more likely to support change that’s based on their input and recommendations) Address requirements for employee involvement and annual program evaluations mandated by OSHA VPP ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

13 A SCS Has Benefits Over Other Information Gathering Tools.
Gathers information from all or a representative sample. Committees, suggestion systems, and even interviews favor the vocal minority Results in better information, as well as “empowered” workforce. Gathers sensitive information from employees in a confidential manner (thus encouraging more frank, candid comments). Relatively quick, easy, and cost-effective. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

14 A SCS Should Measure A Wide Variety of Issues.
Management Support for Safety Genuine interest in reducing injuries (v. “keeping the numbers low”) Willingness to invest resources (i.e., time and money) Ability to balance safety with other KPI’s (e.g., productivity, schedule) Peer Support for Safety (“Interdependence” or “Actively Caring”) Personal Responsibility for Safety ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

15 A SCS Should Measure A Wide Variety of Issues.
Safety Management Systems, including: Incident Reporting & Investigation Discipline Rewards & Recognition Communication Safety Accountability Training Behavior-based Observation & Feedback process Employee Involvement Facilities Audits & Inspections ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

16 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons.
Organization vs. Time vs. Norm Wage Wage vs. Salary vs. Wage Norm vs. Mgt. Norm Mgt. Mgt Norm Wage Norm ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

17 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons.
Look at the patterns shown by ‘sets’ of items: Employees should give feedback to peers for at-risk behavior… I’m willing to give feedback to peers… I do give feedback to peers… ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

18 When Interpreting the Data, Consider These Particularly Interesting Comparisons.
Look at the patterns shown by ‘sets’ of items: Production demands don’t override Managers’ concern for safety. Production demands don’t override Supervisors’ concern for safety. Organization Organization ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

19 Following the Analysis, Leadership Must Set a Clear Agenda for Change.
A clear vision (what the desired culture will be like) and objectives Agreement of the steps that must be taken A leadership team that is unified, energized, and prepared to lead the change A communication strategy to ensure that the message is consistent across the organization ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

20 Establish Expectations
A ‘Call to Arms’ Assess safety culture - Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyone’s responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a ‘people-based’ focus Total Safety Culture Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

21 Poorly Defined Expectations Result In Two Problems.
Leaders don’t always understand what they can and should do to support safety. The organization doesn’t recognize or reward those who perform well or help develop those who do not. “What Gets Measured Gets Done”. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

22 SCS Results Often Reveal Low Supervisor Support for Safety.
“Supervisors sometimes encourage employees to overlook hazards to get the job done.” “Employees are given feedback by supervisors if they are observed working unsafely.” “I am encouraged to stop a job is a safety hazard is identified.” “Work productivity and quality usually have a higher priority than work safety.” ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

23 Further Study Often Reveals Supervisors Have Poorly-Defined Safety Responsibilities.
“Give monthly safety meeting talk”. “Make sure everybody’s wearing their PPE”. “Stop an employee if you see them breaking a safety rule”. “Send people to training when required”. “Help new employees or transfers learn the safety rules”. “Keep the injury rate in your group as low as possible.” When supervisors themselves were asked about their responsibilities in the area of safety, here’s what they said (review bullet list). Obviously, supervisors’ roles in the area of safety were poorly defined. It’s no wonder the employees has the impression that safety was not a primary concern for supervisors because supervisors themselves did not have clearly defined roles and responsibilities for safety. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

24 Use Three Steps to Develop Supervisor Accountabilities.
Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement A representative team develops a list of items describing how supervisors can be “TSC Change Agents”. The list is reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation Instead, supervisors should be held accountable for things over which they do have significant influence, if not total control. And the process for determining what those things are is also very important. Here’s the process this particular organization used to come up with the list behaviors and activities they were going to ask of their supervisors. (Review the bullets.) ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

25 The Skill Set Typically Contains Many Categories.
Support and reward employee participation in safety activities. Set safety goals and expectations with employees. Provide regular formal and informal safety performance feedback. Model appropriate safety-related behaviors. Solicit and encourage employee input on safety-related matters. Demonstrate fact-finding rather than fault-finding for safety concerns. Communicate safety-related information, focusing on process measures, to employees regularly. Show visible support for safety policies, rules, procedures, and regulations (regardless of personal opinion). Demonstrate appropriate balance between safety and other performance measures. Focus on safety processes rather than outcomes. Foster teamwork within the group. The final list had fourteen major categories. (review ) ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

26 Each Category Should be Defined in Objective, Observable, Behaviors.
A. Support and reward employee participation in safety activities Behavioral Observation and Feedback Process (BOFP) Work with BOFP committee member(s) to establish goals for your group. Schedule time for observations every week. Allow/encourage BOFP meetings. Participate in (or lead) ABC analyses. Request BOFP observations for specific operations or jobs and during outages or turnarounds. Request BOFP observations be performed on you. Review (or ask BOFP participant to review) BOFP progress reports at monthly safety meetings. Recognize individual contributions toward BOFP (privately and publicly). Recognize overall BOFP process accomplishments. Keep up-to-date on pertinent BOFP data, including: Group members who are trained observers. Each major category contained a very detailed, specific list of behaviors that should be performed. For example, under the category “Support and reward employee participation in safety activities”, several safety activities were specifically mentioned, one of which was the observation and feedback process. For each of these safety activities, a list of very specific ways in which supervisors could encourage employee participation was developed. Here’s the specific activities that were defined to be ways in which supervisors could support and reward employee participation in the “behavioral observation and feedback process”. (review list). ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

27 Use Three Steps to Develop Supervisor Accountabilities.
Step 1: Skill Set Development and Endorsement A diagonal cross-sectional team developed a list of items (skill set) describing the ways FLSs can be “TSC Change Agents”. The list was reviewed, modified, and endorsed by the Senior Management Team as expectations for job performance. Step 2: Skill Set Communication and Training Step 3: Performance Support and Evaluation Once the list was developed in Step 1, the set was shared with all supervisors and their managers. Where additional skills were needed to allow supervisors to fulfill effectively perform these activities, training was provided. Finally, a system was developed to periodically measure supervisors’ performance of these activities, provide them feedback on how well they were doing, reinforce good performance, and help improve weak performance. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

28 Employee Engagement is Critical to Achieve a TSC.
Employees know about unsafe conditions. Employees know when and where the at-risk behaviors occur. Employees know more about peers’ feelings, attitudes, and emotions which may impact safety. Employees are in the best position to use the behavior-change strategies on a daily basis. Peer support (“peer pressure”) is an extremely powerful motivator. Participation fosters ownership. As we develop tools and strategies to help address the Behavior and Person sides of the triangle, employee involvement is critical. Employees are the ones who know where the workplace hazards are and are the ones who will be in the best position to observe and correct those hazards. Therefore we need their expertise and energy. They know when they and their fellow workers are behaving safely and when risks tend to be taken; they know what the attitude is toward safety on the part of the workers and managers; and of course, they have the most to gain from improvement in safety performance. However, employees may feel awkward or unsure about some of the ideas and strategies—unless they feel like they are involved in designing and using them—rather than having the strategies used on them. Full understanding and participation is necessary to foster the level of buy-in and commitment needed for success. When employees help target the hazards and behaviors that might lead to accidents, and help plan ways to control them, everyone’s attention gets focused on the right issues. A TSC encourages people to take charge of the safety improvement. It invites employees to assume responsibility for health and safety. Employee involvement is so critical because a TSC is based on the belief that people care about a process they help create and will work to make it succeed. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

29 Involvement Increases the Generalization of Safe Behavior.
Involved Uninvolved Two Groups Target Other Behavior In a similar study, the researchers at Va Tech conducted research with two groups of pizza delivery drivers many years ago (before safety belt legislation was put into effect). The goal was to boost safety-belt use of drivers. Safety-belt use was measured before, during, and after a safety-belt campaign when entering and exiting the store parking lots. Without going into great detail, here’s what the safety-belt campaign looked like for each group: -One hour group discussion on value of safety belts and ways to support each other’s use. -Buckle up promise cards signed as a personal commitment for 2 months. Entered cards into a random drawing for a $20 sweatshirt. -Buckle up reminder signs in the 2 stores. -Dispatcher gave each driver a reminder with their orders. Store 1: Group discussion, goal setting, post % safe behavior bi-weekly, manager would observe periodically his parking lot for complete stops. Store 2: Employees were lectured to, and manager assigned same goals set by store 1. Same feedback from manager bi-weekly. Observers were located throughout town observing drivers as they came and went during dinner hours. In addition to observing for safety belt use, however, observers were also watching for turn signal use, stopping at intersections, and speeding. In the group that chose to use their belts, not only did safety belt use increase significantly, but the three other behaviors increased. In the group that was threatened, safety belt use increased only near the pizza store (but not away from the store!). However, the three other behaviors did not increase! In addition, we had the chance to observe the driving behaviors of the first group of observers without their knowledge. As they drove to and from their observation posts, a second set of observers recorded their four different driving behaviors. Care to guess what happened? That’s right: the belt use, turn signal use, stopping behavior, and speeding behavior all got better during and after the study! From this simple experiment, we realized that when people are given a choice, they are more likely to change their behavior, become more committed to that behavior change, and generalize the rationale for that specific behavior change to other related behaviors. And, when people work to influence the safety-related behavior of others, THEIR behavior is significantly impacted as well. Increase Increase No Change* Increase ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

30 Employees Should Contribute In Ways that Match Their Skills and Interests.
Conducting a VHS Audit An individual achieving a “positive score” on a VHS audit A department achieving an average “positive score” on a VHS audit Achieving a positive grade on “Company Safety Directives” Attending a optional safety meeting or safety training Serving on a safety committee Passing a “knowledge check” after training Answering a series of questions correctly during a “Knowledge Check Audit” Leading a group safety meeting Conducting or reviewing a JSA, JHA, or SOP Participating in an incident investigation Reporting a “qualifying” near miss or safety suggestion Average time to safety work order closure Conducting a safety/housekeeping audit or vehicle inspection “Score” on a housekeeping audit Sharing injury/near miss at safety meeting Completing ‘Defensive Driving” course or EMT/First responder certification Conducting an Ergonomic job evaluation/modification Here’s a list of the activities that would earn individuals points. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

31 Develop Safety Leadership
A ‘Call to Arms’ Assess safety culture - Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyone’s responsibility Develop Safety Leadership - Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a ‘people-based’ focus Total Safety Culture Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

32 Align Safety Systems Total Safety Culture Develop Safety Leadership
- Improve the ability of leaders to drive safety A ‘Call to Arms’ Assess safety culture - Create a sense of urgency Establish Expectations - Make safety everyone’s responsibility Align Safety Systems - Develop & improve systems using a ‘people-based’ focus Total Safety Culture Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

33 Align Safety Systems All systems should accomplish their primary objectives in a way that fosters a TSC. • Safety-Related Discipline • Safety Committees • Audits and Inspections • Safety Communication • Incident Reporting and Analysis • Safety Policies & Procedures • Observation and Feedback • Safety Accountability Systems • Reward and Recognition Systems • S&H Measurement Systems Describe briefly each module. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

34 Safety and Health Measurement System
Case Study 1 A third case study looks at the way in which one organization modified how it measured safety performance. Safety and Health Measurement System

35 “Visibility Boards” Are Used to Manage Key Performance Indicators.
Fabrication Department Schedule Efficiency In this particular organization, each department had, what they called, a visibility board. It was a large bulletin board at a prominent location in the department that summarized current metrics for a variety of performance indicators, including schedule, budget, quality, and efficiency. The board is updated daily and is reviewed each morning with employees, summarizing yesterday’s performance (both good and bad), and highlighting any areas needing some attention. In addition, senior management would tour the area weekly, stopping at each department for a review of their visibility board. This was an opportunity for senior management to reinforce areas of strong performance, and help identify and remove any barriers contributing to problem areas. (This is similar to other organization’s use of performance reports.) Safety also had a place on the visibility board. Quality Budget Safety ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

36 The “Visibility Board” for Safety Contained Little Useful Information.
Days Since Last Lost Time Injury 41 But, while for other performance areas the metrics included up-to-the-minute, process measures, the safety information was very different. It typically included the type of information shown here - long-term, outcome statistics. Monthly Safety Topic: Fall Protection ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

37 Incident Statistics Are Not Sufficient Indicators of Safety Performance.
Polluted (influenced by): At-risk Behaviors and Conditions Uncontrollable Events Reporting Practices Record-Keeping Practices Medical Management and Return-to-Work Practices Trailing vs. Leading Non-diagnostic: tell us how things are going, but do not indicate how to improve. As we mentioned earlier, safety statistics are not very good indicators of safety performance. They are not objective, unbiased measures. In addition, safety statistics such as recordable rate, or lost time injury rate, are trailing indicators. That is, they tell us about events that have already taken place, not what we might expect to occur in the future. They’re reactive rather than proactive. And because of this, they’re not very useful in helping to diagnose what’s needed to improve performance. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

38 Emphasis on Outcome Measures Damages the Safety Culture.
Encourages (and rewards) underreporting. Fosters a lack of confidence in management’s commitment to employee safety. Stifles employee involvement and personal accountability. Failure oriented: breeds “learned helplessness”. Precludes system improvements Fosters a “fix the symptom”, not “fix the system” mentality Encourages knee-jerk reactions (i.e., tampering) Equally important, focusing attention on these outcome measures of safety can have harmful effects on an organization’s culture. As we mentioned earlier, placing a heavy emphasis on reducing the injury numbers may encourage employees to not report injuries when they do occur. It may also lead to the impression by employees that management’s true concern is to keep the numbers looking good as opposed to a genuine interest in preventing employees from being hurt. Let me illustrate what I mean … **Go to the next slide, then return here** Because the focus is on the ultimate outcome numbers, and not on the activities needed for improvement, employee involvement is not adequately encouraged. After a while, many people form the impression that it doesn’t matter what they do or how hard they try, the organization may or may not meet their goals, so “why bother” (e.g., learned helplessness). And finally, a heavy emphasis on the numbers encourages leaders to take immediate actions to improve the numbers, rather than doing the difficult things (e.g., making true changes to the systems) that are ultimately needed to make long term improvements. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

39 Over-Emphasis on Outcome Measures Damages Employee Perceptions.
With crippled limbs and mangled feet, a million man-hours we did meet; With records kept such as these, we’ll reach a zillion it’ll be a breeze; Rewards are for achievements met, but we ain’t reached a million yet; Their safety program is a sham, As for you and me? They don’t give a damn. - Hourly employee, Chemical processing plant This poem was written by an hourly employee at this plant during a TSC workshop. The plant had just celebrated a major safety milestone a few weeks before with a big steak dinner and gifts for everyone. I think this poem illustrates what he, and likely many others, thought about the celebration. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

40 Safety Process Measures Provide Many Benefits.
Provide early identification of system problems. Track genuine change, improvement. Identify opportunities for injury prevention. Encourage active involvement (engagement). Foster sense of personal control. Builds self-esteem and group cohesion. So, instead of focusing on safety outcome statistics, measuring and monitoring PROCESS safety metrics has many benefits. (Review list.) ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

41 Safety Metrics Were Chosen To Reflect Performance of Key Safety Processes.
Ergonomic job evaluation/modification Behavioral observation and feedback Safety inspections Incident reporting and analysis Safety suggestions / near miss reporting Safety training Safety meetings Safety work orders Safety committees Metrics were developed to measure the current state of each of key safety process. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

42 Process Measures Should Include Quantitative and Qualitative Measures.
Safety Audit Process Quantitative Measures: Number of safety audits completed Percentage of audits involving managers; hourly employees Number of action items identified; completed Average time-to-closure on action items Qualitative Measures: Accuracy of audits (via second observer reliability) Significance of issues identified Effectiveness of solutions implemented Employee perceptions (survey) For example, here’s a list of some of the metrics that were developed to measure the health of the company’s environmental auditing process. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

43 The New “Visibility Boards” Are Information Rich.
Safety Processes ERGONOMICS Evaluated Total Processes # Concerns # AIs in # AIs # AIs # % OK Not OK Identified Progress Completed Open % % BBS Then, the “visibility boards” were updated to reflect the key process measures in the area of safety. Near Miss/Incident Analyses Total # : Closed out: (75%) Resulting AIs: 11 Closed out: (55%) Avg Time days Safety Suggestions # Received: # Addressable: 16 # Complete: # in Progress: # Open: Other Activities vs. Goal Monthly training 74% Safety audit 100% AI Close-out 68% JSA Review 23% Highlighted Activities ______________________ ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

44 The “Board” Is Reviewed Weekly With Management and Employees.
Now, when the board is reviewed each morning with employees, supervisors can provide rewarding feedback for those areas showing good performance, and can lead discussions on how to improve the areas showing weaknesses. Likewise, during the weekly management tours, departments can review their week’s safety activity performance, focusing on the successes achieved and any assistance needed from management to continue to improve performance. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

45 Incident Investigation System Redesign
Case Study 2 Incident Investigation System Redesign

46 Management Questioned the Effectiveness of their Process Where Human Behavior was Involved.
? ? Root Causes ? ? ? ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

47 The Current Process Revealed Several Weaknesses.
Little employee involvement during analysis or follow-up No expertise or training provided in Psychology or Human Factors No behavior analysis tools used (e.g., ABC Analysis, Task Analysis) Root causes identified often included “Employee Action”. Therefore“Counsel Employee” or “Discipline Employee” were common. Communication was less than adequate Of the incident Of the analysis results Of recommended follow-up actions Of the completion of follow-up actions Generalization of follow-up actions was infrequent. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

48 Incomplete Analysis Leads to a Feeling of Blame.
“Human Error” Implies… Incompetent Careless Lazy Unmotivated Inattentive Clumsy In addition, if we fail to understand the TRUE root cause of an incident, then the individuals involved inevitably feel like they’re the ones being blamed – even if we don’t come right out and say it that way. The words “human error” often imply … (read the list) ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

49 Survey Results Highlighted A Revealing Pattern.
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Very Somewhat Neither Blame... Problem Solving... Salaried who have been involved in incident investigations Hourly who have been involved in incident investigations Hourly who have NOT been involved in incident investigations ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

50 Incomplete Analysis & Wrong Conclusions
Ineffective Countermeasures Feelings of Blame Incomplete Information Disclosure ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

51 Negative Perceptions Leads to Under-Reporting.
60% of employees think they would be blamed. 47% believe they or a coworker will be disciplined. 52% believe the incident would effect them in the future. 60% would not report an incident if they could avoid doing so. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

52 The Incident Analysis Process Was Redesigned to Meet Two Goals.
Better determine the immediate causes and root causes (especially those influencing human behavior) which allowed the incident to occur so effective counter-measures can be taken to reduce future injury risk. Encourage the full and open participation of all employees by eliminating any fault-finding, adversarial atmosphere. This workshop is designed to address to two major goals of the incident upgrade: First, to better identify root causes of incidents and to develop effective countermeasures. Second, to foster an atmosphere conducive to full and open participation of any employee involved in, witness to, or with pertinent information for any incident on site. ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

53 Incident Analysis Team Training Focused on Human Elements.
Interviewing strategies and techniques Factors influencing human performance Human error Risky behavior Analytical investigation techniques (including behavior analysis tools) ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

54 Unsafe Behavior is Often the Result of System Influences.
At-Risk Behavior Did operator purposefully perform a behavior which s/he knew to be unsafe? No Yes Human Error Risky Behavior System-Induced Human Error Individual Variance System-Encouraged Behavior Willful Negligence Act of sabotage ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

55 A TSC Requires A Shift From Dependence to Interdependence.
Safety Achievement Interdependence Independence Leading Succeeding Essentially, what we’re suggesting is that we need to continue to shift our perspective on how to manage safety. Forty to fifty years ago within American industry in general, we tended to have a philosophy of “dependence” when it came to safety. That is, it was the company’s responsibility to reduce or eliminate the safety hazards within the workplace. And with that approach, tremendous improvements were made. We realized, however, that that approach will only achieve a certain level of safety success. We then recognized the need to foster more ownership for one’s own safety among the workplace, essentially a perspective of “independence”. Again, tremendous strides were made, but many organizations again found themselves sitting on a plateau. What we’re suggesting now is that in order to continue to make safety improvements we need to again change our perspective, this time we need to cultivate a sense of “interdependence”. That is, people need to be responsible for their own and others’ safety. Everyone needs to “Actively Care”. Dependence Improving Beginning 1 2 3 4 Dependence: Top-Down Condition of Employment Safety for OSHA Disincentives for Outcomes Environment Focused Fault Finding Safety is Important Quick Fix Independence: Bottom-Up Personal Commitment Safety for Self Incentives for Outcomes Behavior Focused Fact Finding Safety is Priority Eventual Fix Interdependence: Empowerment Team Commitment Safety for Others Recognition for Behavior Env./Beh./Person Systems Thinking Safety is a Value Continuous Improvement ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)

56 Questions ?? ©Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. (5.06)


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