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Chapter 11 National & Regional Growth

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1 Chapter 11 National & Regional Growth
In this chapter we will learn how new inventions influenced the growth and development of the United States; causing slavery to spread rapidly in the agricultural South and causing the North to become increasingly more industrial. We will also learn how these two regions started coming into conflict with each other because of these different paths and visions on what the United States should be.

2 1807 Robert Fulton launches a steamboat on the Hudson River.
1808 Congress bans the African slave trade. 1812 War of 1812 disrupts U.S. shipping. Image 1813 Weaving factory built in Waltham, Massachusetts. 1820 Missouri Compromise balances number of slave and free states. 1823 Monroe Doctrine issued. Identify events that prob made it easier to communicate and travel over long distance. Identify events that involve slavery 1825 Erie Canal completed. 1831 Nat Turner leads slave rebellion in Virginia. 1844 Telegraph line connects Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. To World

3 1804 Haiti wins independence from France.
1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo. 1821 Peru and Mexico gain independence from Spain. 1825 First public railroad operates in England. 1833 Slavery is abolished in British Empire. 1839 Louis Daguerre is recognized for his photographic process. Back to U.S. Back to Home

4 Section 1: Early Industry & Inventions
Main Idea New machines and factories changed the way people lived and worked in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Why is it important? We are still developing new technologies today. Name technologies today that change the way we live and work.

5 Important Industrial Revolution Inventions
Telegraph – Samuel F.B. Morse – 1837 Steam Boat – Robert Fulton – 1807 Steel Plow – John Deere 1836 Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney – 1793 Interchangeable Parts – Eli Whitney – 1801 **In your own words, describe what you think The above inventions were used for

6 The Industrial Revolution
A time when factory machines replaced hand tools and manufacturing goods replaced farming as the main source of work. Began in Europe in the late 1700s and caught on in America in the early - mid 1800s. Changed almost everything about how we got our basic needs met (food, clothes, shelter, transportation, etc.) Technological advances increased profits and productivity.

7 Causes of the Industrial Revolution
During the War of 1812 the United States began manufacturing on a much larger scale than before. Trade with other nations was blocked Americans began to make their own goods and soon got very experienced at it. A vast supply of natural resources and land brought immigrants to the United States who could be used to work in factories. Many new technologies and inventions were created that helped production both on the farm and in the city.

8 Causes of the Industrial Revolution Cont.
Improvements in transportation and manufacturing led many people to move to cities (urbanization) Cities became the home to many factories where goods were produced in mass quantities. This created the beginnings of our Industrial Revolution which brought RAPID industrialization and urbanization to the United States.

9 Effects of the Industrial Revolution
North: Industrial Economy (manufacturing & trade) Factories started in New England because rivers were used to generate power for factories and to ship goods. Steam engines eventually eliminated the need for water for power and factories began to move to other places. Large population movement to the North for jobs and a “better” way of life. Produced textiles (cloth) as a major source of revenue (money). Supports high tariffs so that goods made in the United States will be chosen over goods from other nations.

10 The Factory System (an effect on the North)
This system brought many workers and machines together under one roof to produce a good. The invention of interchangeable parts and machine tools allowed workers to be very unskilled and untrained. Lowell Mills Henry Cabot Lowell created factories that spun raw cotton into yarn and made it into cloth. Employed farm girls during their teenage years. They lived in boarding houses near the factory and were held to strict behavioral and performance requirements. At first the pay and conditions were decent but as the factory started losing profits wages and conditions declined. Most factories were built by source of water (Why? to power machines). What region is that? Define interchangeable parts

11 The Factory System cont.
Workers in other Northern factories were usually women and children who were not paid very much for their labor and had very few rights. Children were used because they were cheaper than adults and were small enough to fit inside the machines if something needed to be fixed or got stuck. Many children were injured or maimed this way. If a worker (adult or child) got sick or hurt they were simply fired. There were no unemployment benefits, workman’s compensation plans, or insurance. Workers were not allowed to join unions to protect their rights. If they tried to join unions they were fired and then put on a “black-list” so they could not be hired at other jobs either. Some workers were made to sign contracts promising they would not try and join a union.

12 Inventors & their Inventions
Effect on society/industry Eli Whitney Interchangeable parts Contributed to the growth of mass production in the United States by making production MUCH easier and faster and much more reliable. Cotton Gin Allowed MUCH more cotton to be cleaned and processed a day and increased clothing production. Made cotton farming MUCH more profitable. Expanded the use of slaves in the south for cheap farm labor. Samuel F.B. Morse Telegraph Improved communication Allowed people to track news and movements of friends and family. Allowed businesses to track orders and shipments of goods. Robert Fulton Steam Boat (powered by steam engine) Allowed people and goods to travel much faster (Steam engines would soon be used in trains as well to improve the transportation industry even more) Samuel Slater Textile Mills Mass production of cloth for making clothing and other goods. Mils employed mostly unskilled workers (women and children).

13 Inventors & their Inventions
Effect on society/industry James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny Spun thread into cloth for mass production of clothing, etc. Elias Howe Sewing Machine Allowed cloth to be turned into clothes quickly and on a mass scale. Clothes could now be made in factories for profit and purchased in stores instead of hand-made (giving women more leisure time). John Deere Steel Plow Made plowing much easier and allowed it to go much faster. It was easier to make a profit at cash-cropping. McCormick Mechanical Reaper Greatly increased farm production Henry Bessemer Bessemer Steel Process (not until mid-1850s) Process of purifying hot iron ore to make steel. Things that were once made out of iron (railroad tracks, etc.) could now be made out of steel which lasts much longer before breaking.

14 Effects of the Industrial Revolution
South: Agricultural Economy Became an economy based on cash crops and plantations (usually cotton) that relied heavily on slave labor to be profitable. Opposed high tariffs because their cotton was still worth the same amount of money in trade with other nations yet they had to pay higher prices for the goods they got in exchange.

15 Canals and Roadways Link US
To help transport goods and people the US started building long-distance roads and Canals. The Erie Canal was built between Buffalo, NY and New York, NY This benefited commerce (business) by allowing people and goods to move from East to West MUCH faster. Trade stimulated by the canal helped New York City become the largest city in the US.

16 2 Column Chart: Effects of Industrial Revolution per Region
North South

17 Section 2: Plantations & Slavery Spread
Main Idea The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton caused slavery to spread in the South. Why does it matter? The spread of slavery caused lasting racial and sectional tensions which not only led to the Civil War but plagued our nation for many years.

18 The Cotton Gin & the Cotton Boom
Cotton was very hard to pick and clean Doing it all by hand wasn’t very profitable With the Cotton Gin, a single worker could produce 50 lbs. of cotton each day. This soon became the fastest growing industry in America because cotton was now worth more than most other farm products. It caused many farmers to move further west in order to get more land for cotton farming. It relied very heavily on slave labor to make profits so more and more slaves were purchased for use on plantations. Cotton robs the soil of nutrients which will become an issue later.

19 The Plantation System A plantation is a large farm that raises cash crops to be sold at market or to be traded. Crops grown on plantations are usually cotton, rice, tobacco, etc. and are grown and tended to by slaves. The plantation system is another way to describe how the South was set up before the Civil War.

20 The Plantation System Cont.
The economy in the South became based on the system of forced labor of slaves. Without slaves the economy of the South would have been destroyed. Plantation owners needed to use slaves for labor because if they had to pay all the workers they needed to raise their crops they would not have made any profit. Plantation owners were wealthy and were at the top of society and they usually played very important roles in their communities.

21 Plantation System Flowchart
Use the following to create a flowchart of the plantation system. Invention of the cotton gin Labor shortage in the colonies Increased cotton production Growth of Slavery Answer: 2, 1, 4, 3

22 Section 3 Nationalism and Sectionalism
Main Idea… The War of 1812 created patriotic pride among Americans but differences and tensions began developing between the North and the South. Why does it matter? These tensions eventually lead to the Civil War and the differences among the regions of our nation are still present today! Define Nationalism.

23 Sectionalism Sectionalism= Loyalty to your own region, or part, of the nation rather than the whole nation itself. Since the increased national unity and patriotism during the War of 1812, the North and South had grown in 2 different directions each wanted different things. This started causing lots of arguments and problems Each section of the nation was trying to get their own way in the government and each trying to make the most money. Predict potential arguments and problems

24 Loyal to their section…they thought of themselves...
as citizens of their own state first, as Regions second, and as U.S. citizens third.

25 Sectionalism Chart North Wanted: South Wanted: Free Labor
Slavery and some free labor Wanted slavery abolished or limited Wanted to be able to extend slavery Strong basis for industry Relied on agriculture Strong federal government State’s Rights High Tariffs Low Tariffs

26 Missouri Compromise Missouri applied for statehood in 1817
The people of Missouri wanted to have slavery in their new state. There were 11 states where slavery was allowed and 11 states where it wasn’t. This sparked a HUGE debate in Congress about whether or not Missouri should be allowed to have slavery. Either way, one side would have more power than the other side in the Senate.

27 Missouri Compromise Angry Southerners said Congress didn’t have the power to ban slavery and each state had the right to have slaves if they wished. They were afraid if there were more free states than slave states, the free states would gang up on them and ban slavery all together! Luckily Maine also wanted to become a state. Henry Clay (known as the “Great Compromiser”) came up with the idea to keep the balance of power in the Senate equal. Maine became a free state Missouri became a slave state Slavery was outlawed north of the Missouri Compromise Line (36° 30’ Missouri’s Southern Border)

28 What patterns do you see?

29 The Monroe Doctrine Created by President James Monroe in 1823
Was addressed to European powers in case they planned on trying to regain control of former colonies in Latin America. Stated that the United States DEMANDED that Europe stay out of the affairs of Latin America (no colonization). Monroe declared that any attempt to re-colonize would be seen as “dangerous to our peace and safety” We (the United States) wanted to be the big influence in Latin America and didn’t want any other nations crowding in on us. This showed that the US saw itself as a world power!

30 Monroe Doctrine

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