Presentation on theme: "B23 d. 13. nov. 1. SME Netværk og Innovation 2. Systemteori og systemtankegang – oversigt 3. Teleologisk system-tankegang – Kant for planlæggere 4. Information."— Presentation transcript:
B23 d. 13. nov. 1. SME Netværk og Innovation 2. Systemteori og systemtankegang – oversigt 3. Teleologisk system-tankegang – Kant for planlæggere 4. Information Space og Systemtankegang (Jantsch & Boisot) 5. BOP 6. Kap. 8 i Prahalad & Krishnan 7. Øvelse om e-buss
Churchman, C. West: Kant for Planners, Chap. 4 in C. West Churchman: “The Systems Approach and Its Enemies, Basic Books, 1979 Jantsch, Eric: The Basic Design Process – Man’s Cybernetic Existence, in Design for Evolution, Braziller, 1975 Prahalad, C.K. & Hart, S.: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Strategy+Business, Vol. 26, 2002 Schwarz, Eric: Some streams of thought. Int. Inst. for General Systems Studies, May, 2001 Wiener, Norbert: Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation, Science, May, 1960
Charles West Churchman The Systems Approach Delta Books, 1968 The Design of Inquiring Systems Basic Books, 1971 The Systems Approach and Its Enemies Basic Books, 1979
Charles West Churchman 1.The systems approach begins when first you see the world through the eyes of another. 2.The systems approach goes on the discovering that every world view is terribly restricted 3.There are no experts in the systems approach 4.The systems approach is not a bad idea
Norbert Wiener, 1960 The early predictions of Samuel Butler that the machine might take over the control of mankind. If the machines become more and more efficient and operate at a higher and higher psychological level, the catastrophe foreseen by Butler of the dominance of the machine comes nearer and nearer.
Norbert Wiener, 1960 Let it be noted that the development of science is a control and communication - process for the long-term understanding and control of matter. In this process 50 years are as a day in the life of the individual. For this reason, the individual scientist must work as a part of a process whose time scale is so long that he himself can only contemplate a very limited sector of it. And if we adhere simply to the creed of the scientist, that an incomplete knowledge of the world and of ourselves is better than no knowledge, we can still by no means always justify the naive assumption that the faster we rush ahead to employ the new powers for action which are opened up to us, the better it will be. We must always exert the full strength of our imagination to examine where the full use of our new modalities may lead us.
Systembegrebet I design af systemer er der to centrale design problemer: 1.Hvor stort er systemet; dvs. dets gr æ nser og dets omgivelser (milj ø ). Hvad er det st ø rste system, som designeren b ø r arbejde med 2.Hvilke er de basale komponenter; dvs. de komponenter, som ikke indeholder sub-komponenter: Hvad er det mindste system som designeren b ø r arbejde med
Systembegrebet Er det en selv selvet ens psyke et edb-system et beslutningsst ø ttesystem en virksomhed, en organisation samfundet et samfund et kundskabende system ……… ? ”
Kundskabende System I Client Purpose Measure of Performance
Kundskabende System II Decision Maker Components Environment
Kundskabende System III Planner (Designer) Implementation (Communication) Guarantor
Kundskabende System IV Systems Philosopher(s) Enemies of the Systems Approach Significance
Peter Senge’s Fifth Discipline Systems Thinking - is a conceptual framework - a body of knowledge and tools - developed over the last 50 years, that serves to make clearer the full patterns of the problems, issues, and situations that confront us. Systems thinking also helps us see how to change them effectively. Personal Mastery - is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and seeing reality objectively. Mental Models - are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence our behavior and understanding of the world. Building Shared Vision - is that discipline wherein people are bound together around a common identity and sense of destiny whereby they excel and learn. Team Learning - through dialogue team members suspends assumptions and enters into genuine "thinking together.
Churchman’s Inquirers The Realist (Locke) relies on "facts" and expert opinion, seeks solutions that meet current needs, is serious about getting concrete results, acts with efficiency and incisive correction, prefers data over theory The Analyst (Leibniz) seeks the "one best way," operates with models and formulas, is interested in "scientific solutions," is prescriptive, and prefers data to theory and method The Idealist (Kant) welcomes a broad range of views, seeks ideal solutions, is interested in values, is receptive, and places equal value on data and theory The Synthesist (Hegel) sees likenesses in things that appear unalike, seeks conflict and synthesis, is interested in change, gets at underlying assumptions, sees the essence of problems, is speculative - asks what if and why not, and regards data to be meaningless without interpretation The Pragmatist (Singer) proceeds on the basis of an eclectic view, uses a tactical, incremental approach; and, being innovative and adaptive, is best in complex situations.......