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Does Change in Adolescent Faith, Spirituality and Religiosity Really Happen? Janice L. Templeton Stephen C. Peck Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "Does Change in Adolescent Faith, Spirituality and Religiosity Really Happen? Janice L. Templeton Stephen C. Peck Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Does Change in Adolescent Faith, Spirituality and Religiosity Really Happen? Janice L. Templeton Stephen C. Peck Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan

2 Overview Spirituality, religiosity, faith: complex constructs Spirituality, religiosity, faith: complex constructs Complex developmental processes Complex developmental processes Mixed methods approach: person-centered and variable centered Mixed methods approach: person-centered and variable centered Stability and change in adolescent religiosity: person-centered approach Stability and change in adolescent religiosity: person-centered approach

3 Complex Develomental Processes Multifinality Equifinality Multifinality Equifinality Cicchetti, Dante & Rogosch, 1996

4 Multifinality ( Multifinality (Cicchetti, Dante & Rogosch, 1996) Religious family context Not religious Religious, but don’t attend religious services Spiritual, but not religious Religious and attend religious services weekly

5 Equifinality ( Equifinality (Cicchetti, Dante & Rogosch, 1996) Spiritual, but not religious Highly religious family Civically engaged family Environmentalist family

6  vs. Variable centered approach  Complex, dynamic and adaptive person-environment systems  Principles and mechanisms underlying developmental processes  Patterns of development across time Person-centered Approach Magnusson, 2003

7 MADICS (Eccles & Sameroff, PI’s) Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study 6 (plus) Waves of Longitudinal Data 6 (plus) Waves of Longitudinal Data Questionnaires and Interviews Questionnaires and Interviews Target Youth, PCG, SCG, & OS Target Youth, PCG, SCG, & OS N’s 1482 (age 12) to 900 (age 23) N’s 1482 (age 12) to 900 (age 23) 49% Female 49% Female 60% Black, 30% White, 10% Other 60% Black, 30% White, 10% Other

8 MADICS Acknowledgements We thank the following people for their support of this project (listed alphabetically): Elaine Belansky, Todd Bartko, Heather Bouchey, Nick Butler, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Leslie Gutman, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Sarah Lord, Karen McCarthy, Oksana Malanchuk, Alice Michael, Melanie Overby, Stephen C. Peck, Robert Roeser, Sherri Steele, Erika Taylor, Janice Templeton, Cindy Winston, and Carol Wong. Data reported here come from grants to Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Arnold J. Sameroff from the MacArthur Network on Successful Adolescent Development in High Risk Settings (Chair: R. Jessor) and the National Institutes for Child Health and Human Development and to Jacquelynne S. Eccles from the W.T. Grant Foundation.

9 MADICS Religion Measures Explicit Explicit How often do you attend church or religious services? How often do you attend church or religious services? Implicit (Open-ended questions, religious Implicit (Open-ended questions, religious content NOT solicited) content NOT solicited) Hopes: List four things about the kind of person you most hope to be at this time next year. Hopes: List four things about the kind of person you most hope to be at this time next year. Wishes: What you would wish for, if you had three wishes? Wishes: What you would wish for, if you had three wishes? Occupation: If you could have any job, what would it be at age 25? Occupation: If you could have any job, what would it be at age 25?

10 Analysis Chi square Chi square Adjusted residuals +/ Adjusted residuals +/ More than expected by chance Less than expected by chance Expected by chance

11 Explicit Measures Do you have a religion? Do you have a religion? How often do you attend church or religious services? How often do you attend church or religious services? 3 groups 3 groups No religion No religion Low attendance – once/month or less Low attendance – once/month or less High attendance – once/week or more High attendance – once/week or more

12 Religious Types 8 th 11 th No religion N=106 66% (13.4) High Attend N=397 81% (14.5) Low Attend N=122 52% (9.0) Low Attend N=63 No religion N=70 High Attend N=321 “ Stability ”

13 Examples of Implicit Religious Identity Theme Responses Hopes: to be saved, to serve God Hopes: to be saved, to serve God Wishes: have everyone go to heaven, be more spiritual Wishes: have everyone go to heaven, be more spiritual Million Dollars: give money to church Million Dollars: give money to church Desired Occupation: minister Desired Occupation: minister

14 7 th 8 th 11 th No Religious Identity Patterns Yes N=43 Yes N=13 5% (-5.2) 37% (5.1) 63% (-5.1) No N=22 7% (-7.0) Yes N=50 No N=896 No N=853 95% (5.2) No N=638 93% (7.0)

15 7 th 8 th 11 th Religious Identity Theme Patterns Yes N=151 No N=127 84% (-5.2) No N=6 30% (-8.6) Yes N=24 16% (5.2) Yes N=14 70% (8.6)

16 8 th Grade Religious Identity and Religious Service Attendance 8 th Grade Religious Identity and Religious Service Attendance N=367 Adjusted Residuals

17 Religious Identity Pathways High Attend No Relig Id N=422 Relig ID N=56 13% (4.9) 8 th 11th Not Hi Att No Relig Id N=279 Relig ID N=7 3% (-4.9)

18 Family Context Primary caregiver report How important is religion in the day to day life of your family? How important is religion in the day to day life of your family? Low Importance (Not At All, A Little, Somewhat) Low Importance (Not At All, A Little, Somewhat) High Importance (Very) High Importance (Very)

19 8th 11th 8th 11th Youth and Family Context Patterns Hi Imp No ID N=396 Hi Imp/No ID N=283 72% (*12.1) 12% (*2.0) Hi Imp/ID N=46

20 Conclusions Mixed methods approach Mixed methods approach Person-centered approach Person-centered approach Variable-centered approach Variable-centered approach Individual profiles - spirituality Individual profiles - spirituality Context profiles – family socialization factors such as parental religiosity, parent-youth affective relationship Context profiles – family socialization factors such as parental religiosity, parent-youth affective relationship

21 Thank you. For More Information:


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