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Orbital Pertubations

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Atmosphere Orbital Decay Effect of the Atmosphere Height (km) Life 2002 weeks 10001000yrs 360001Myrs

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Effect of the Earth’s Shape TOP VIEW SIDE VIEW 15m15m7.5m 7.5m EQUATOR 12 714 km 12 756 km N Pole

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Orbital Pertubations These are subtle but accumulative effect on an orbit Nodal regression The orbital plane effectively twists around the earth This is because of the shape of the Earth. This effect is known as Orbital Twist. Perigee Rotation This effect appears as a twisting of the satellites position relative to the Equator. Therefore, satellites need to be managed, in effect ‘flown’.

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Applications of Orbits LEO Earth Observation with resolution Communications MEO Missions Global Navigation Satellite Systems GEO Communications Earth Observation with persistence HEO Communications Earth Observation with persistence

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Persistence………

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…….versus Resolution

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Orbital Requirements LEO Coverage Dwell Time Revisit Time Resolution & Power Requirements GEO c.70 0

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Achieving Orbit

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Initial Launch Direct ascent into low altitude orbit

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Data Table Earth Gravitational Force Mass of EarthRadius of EarthOrbital HeightOrbital VelocityOrbital Period Energy Required to Achieve Orbit 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+06127900.784.73.133E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+06197896.384.93.136E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+061007846.886.53.175E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+062007786.988.53.222E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+063007728.490.53.267E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+064007671.292.63.311E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+065007615.294.63.354E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+066007560.596.73.396E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+067007506.998.83.436E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+068007454.4100.93.475E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+069007403.0103.03.514E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+0610007352.7105.13.551E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+0611007303.3107.33.587E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+0612007255.0109.43.622E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+06200003888.6710.65.498E+07 6.67E-115.98E+246.378E+06357893075.61436.35.781E+07

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Hohman Transfer Orbit Initial Orbit Transfer Orbit Final Orbit

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On Orbit Manoeuvre Basics Attain initial on-orbit station. Maintain assigned position (all Geo satellites). Modify orbit to meet new mission requirements. On-board motors (“thrusters”) are fitted to modify the satellite’s orbit to:

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Repositioning Primarily for GEO satellites. Using fuel shortens life. Takes weeks or months to complete the manoeuvre. Takes capability away from users. Moving satellite to a higher or lower orbit:

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Skynet 5A Launch Simulation

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