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AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Chapter 10 IMPERIALISM & AMERICA Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Chapter 10 IMPERIALISM & AMERICA Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Chapter 10

3 IMPERIALISM & AMERICA Section 1

4 IMPERIALISM IMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories. IMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories. By the 1880s, many American leaders thought the U.S. should establish colonies overseas. By the 1880s, many American leaders thought the U.S. should establish colonies overseas.

5 3 FACTORS FUELED AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: 1) D esire for military strength 2) T hirst for new markets 3) B elief in the superiority of American culture

6 NAVAL POWER Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy Supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete w/other nations Supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete w/other nations

7 U.S.S. Maine & Oregon U.S. built modern battleships like the Maine & the Oregon. U.S. built modern battleships like the Maine & the Oregon. The new ships made the U.S. the worlds largest naval power. The new ships made the U.S. the worlds largest naval power.

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9 U.S. was producing more than Americans could consume….. U.S. was producing more than Americans could consume….. U.S. needed foreign trade. U.S. needed foreign trade. American businesses needed markets for their products & raw materials for their factories. American businesses needed markets for their products & raw materials for their factories.

10 Superiority of American Culture: The 3 rd root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the U.S. were better than the people of other countries The 3 rd root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the U.S. were better than the people of other countries Believed they had a duty to spread their culture & Christian religion among other people. Believed they had a duty to spread their culture & Christian religion among other people.

11 U.S. Acquires Alaska & Hawaii:

12 ALASKA William Seward purchases Alaska, for the U.S., from Russia in 1867. William Seward purchases Alaska, for the U.S., from Russia in 1867. The price? $7.2 million!! The price? $7.2 million!!

13 HAWAII The Background….. The Background….. The Hawaiian islands had been important to the U.S. since 1790s. The Hawaiian islands had been important to the U.S. since 1790s. Merchants stopped there on their way to China & India. Merchants stopped there on their way to China & India. In 1920s, American missionaries founded Christian schools & churches on the islands In 1920s, American missionaries founded Christian schools & churches on the islands

14 Hawaiian sugar plantations… B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by 1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians 3 to 1 B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by 1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians 3 to 1 This weakened the influence of native Hawaiians. This weakened the influence of native Hawaiians.

15 Powerful Hawaiian sugar growers called for the U.S. to annex Hawaii to avoid the tariffs. In 1887, U.S. military forced Hawaii to let it build a naval base at Pearl Harbor….Hawaiis best port.

16 HAWAIIANS LOSE CONTROL OF THEIR ISLANDS: HOW?

17 American business groups organized a revolt against Queen Liliuokalani: U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them revolt. U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them revolt. Planters took control of the island Planters took control of the island They established a temporary government. They established a temporary government.

18 QUEEN LILIUOKALANI In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave up her throne. In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave up her throne. Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S. Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S.

19 They established a temporary government. Made American businessman Sanford B. Dole the president.

20 1898, HAWAII BECOMES A U.S. TERRITORY Stevens urged U.S. government to annex Hawaiian Islands. Stevens urged U.S. government to annex Hawaiian Islands. President Grover Cleveland refused unless majority of Hawaiians favored that. President Grover Cleveland refused unless majority of Hawaiians favored that.

21 1897, William McKinley became president. 1897, William McKinley became president. McKinley favored annexation. McKinley favored annexation. 1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. 1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory.

22 THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR Section 2

23 CUBANS REBEL AGAINST SPAIN B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1 st war for independence from Spain. B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1 st war for independence from Spain. Rebels didnt win, but forced Spain to abolish slavery in 1886 Rebels didnt win, but forced Spain to abolish slavery in 1886

24 U.S. CAPITALISTS INVEST… Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in Cuba. Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in Cuba. Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S. Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S.

25 JOSE MARTI 1895, Cubans began 2 nd war for independence. 1895, Cubans began 2 nd war for independence. Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet & journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y. Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet & journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y. The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause. The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause.

26 WAR FEVER ESCALATES! 1896, Spain sent an army to Cuba to restore order. Army led by General Valeriano Weyler. Weyler rounded up 300,000 people as prisoners in Concentration camps.

27 Stories of concentration camps widely reported in U.S. newspapers. Stories of concentration camps widely reported in U.S. newspapers. Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the brutality to attract readers.(yellow journalism) Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the brutality to attract readers.(yellow journalism)

28 William McKinley became U.S. President in 1897. Since many Americans wanted the U.S. to help the rebels against Spain, McKinley tried to find a peaceful solution.

29 McKinleys efforts pay off…. 1) Spain sent General Weyler home 2) Changed the concentration camp policy. 2) Changed the concentration camp policy. 3) Gave Cuba limited self-government 3) Gave Cuba limited self-government

30 But then, 2 events made Americans very angry at Spain….

31 1) The publication of a letter that insulted the American president….The de Lome letter was written by a Spanish diplomat. It criticized McKinley for being weak.

32 U.S.S. MAINE.. 2) The battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded on February 15, 1898. The ship had been stationed in Cuba to protect American lives. Cause of the explosion was not known….. But…

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34 Newspapers blamed Spain.

35 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS!!!! April 20, 1898, U.S. went to war w/Spain.

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37 THE PHILIPPINES 1 st battle took place in the Philippines. 1 st battle took place in the Philippines. Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300 years. Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300 years. In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish. In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish.

38 George Dewey On May 1, 1898, American naval commander George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, American naval commander George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there. His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there. For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on the side of the Filipino rebels. For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on the side of the Filipino rebels. Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to the U.S. in August. Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to the U.S. in August.

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40 Meanwhile, back in Cuba …… American navy blocked off the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. American navy blocked off the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. Spanish ships could not leave. Spanish ships could not leave. American troops then landed on the island in June 1898. American troops then landed on the island in June 1898.

41 ROUGH RIDERS: Unit of volunteers Unit of volunteers Theodore Roosevelt one of their leaders. Theodore Roosevelt one of their leaders. Rough Riders helped win the important battle of San Juan Hill Rough Riders helped win the important battle of San Juan Hill American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero. American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero.

42 THEODORE ROOSEVELT The Rough Riders U.S. Army 1st Volunteer Cavalry commanded by Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt

43 Spanish Surrender July 25, 1898! When the Spanish ships tried to leave the harbor, their fleet was destroyed. Spain then surrendered to U.S. (The entire war only lasted 113 days!)

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45 TREATY OF PARIS Spain quickly agreed to a peace treaty…. What were the terms?

46 1) Cuba is granted independence !

47 2) Spain gave Puerto Rico & the Pacific Island of Guam to the U.S.

48 3) U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. For the annexation of the Philippine Islands.

49 Debate in U.S. about Imperialism: Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S.. Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S.. President McKinley was in favor of it. President McKinley was in favor of it. Some Americans said annexing territories violated the spirit of the Declaration of Independence. Some Americans said annexing territories violated the spirit of the Declaration of Independence. The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899. The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899. http://www.historywiz.com/primarysources/treatyofparis1898.htm

50 ACQUIRING NEW LANDS Section 3

51 RULING PUERTO RICO : American forces landed in Puerto Rico in July 1898. American forces landed in Puerto Rico in July 1898. Many Puerto Ricans began to resent the military government. Many Puerto Ricans began to resent the military government. In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act which ended military rule & set up a civil government In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act which ended military rule & set up a civil government

52 IN 1917, PUERTO RICANS BECOME U.S. CITIZENS!

53 Control over CUBA… Although Cuba was officially independent after the war, the U.S. army remained there for 4 years Although Cuba was officially independent after the war, the U.S. army remained there for 4 years It punished Cubans who were against this American occupation. It punished Cubans who were against this American occupation.

54 PLATT AMENDMENT : When Cubas new government wrote a constitution in 1900, the U.S. insisted they add the PLATT AMENDMENT When Cubas new government wrote a constitution in 1900, the U.S. insisted they add the PLATT AMENDMENT This limited Cubas rights in dealing w/other countries….gave the U.S. special privileges, including the right to intervene to preserve order. This limited Cubas rights in dealing w/other countries….gave the U.S. special privileges, including the right to intervene to preserve order. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=55

55 PROTECTORATE …. Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. A Protectorate is a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. A Protectorate is a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. The U.S. insisted on these rights b/c of its economic interests in Cuba. The U.S. insisted on these rights b/c of its economic interests in Cuba.

56 FILIPINOS REBEL They were angry that the U.S. had annexed their islands after years of fighting for independence. Opponents to American Rule of the Philippines

57 EMILIO AGUINALDO Filipino rebel leader who believed that the U.S. had promised independence. Filipino rebel leader who believed that the U.S. had promised independence. He felt the U.S. had betrayed the Filipinos after helping them win independence. He felt the U.S. had betrayed the Filipinos after helping them win independence.

58 1899, Aguinaldo started a rebellion that lasted 1899, Aguinaldo started a rebellion that lasted 3 years. (Philippine-American War) Pictured below are Filipino P.O.W.s U.S. won & set up a government similar to the one it had set up in Cuba. U.S. won & set up a government similar to the one it had set up in Cuba.

59 CHINA: By 1899, many countries had economic interests in China U.S. wanted to be able to trade with China too. Secretary of State John Hay sent the OPEN DOOR NOTES to these countries calling for Chinas port to be open to ALL countries.

60 BOXER REBELLION: BOXER REBELLION: In 1900, a secret society in China started a rebellion to protest western influence. In 1900, a secret society in China started a rebellion to protest western influence. Troops from countries (including U.S.) fought the rebel, or Boxers. Troops from countries (including U.S.) fought the rebel, or Boxers. After the Boxer Rebellion was defeated, U.S. issued more Open Door notes to make sure other countries didnt make colonies out of China. After the Boxer Rebellion was defeated, U.S. issued more Open Door notes to make sure other countries didnt make colonies out of China.

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62 How did Americans feel about U.S. imperialism? With the reelection of President William McKinley in 1900, it seems that most Americans agreed w/imperialism. With the reelection of President William McKinley in 1900, it seems that most Americans agreed w/imperialism. An Anti-Imperialist League formed including former president Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, & Mark Twain. An Anti-Imperialist League formed including former president Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, & Mark Twain.

63 AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Section 4

64 President McKinley Assassinated! Pres. McKinley assassinated in 1901. Pres. McKinley assassinated in 1901. Teddy Roosevelt becomes president & continues policies of imperialism Teddy Roosevelt becomes president & continues policies of imperialism

65 TEDDY ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD…. Roosevelt 1 st used U.S. influence to help settle the Russo-Japanese War

66 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Began in 1904 when both Russia & Japan wanted to control Korea. Began in 1904 when both Russia & Japan wanted to control Korea. Japan captured Korea & also invaded Manchuria… which was controlled by Russia Japan captured Korea & also invaded Manchuria… which was controlled by Russia

67 Roosevelt mediates… 1905, representatives of Russia & Japan met. 1905, representatives of Russia & Japan met. Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate a compromise. Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate a compromise. They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway.Nobel InstituteOsloNorway

68 PANAMA CANAL Idea was to build a canal to connect the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. Idea was to build a canal to connect the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. Such a canal would cut travel time for ships b/c they wouldnt have to go all the way around South America. Such a canal would cut travel time for ships b/c they wouldnt have to go all the way around South America.

69 Panama was a province of Columbia. Panama was a province of Columbia. Columbia did not agree to the canal. Columbia did not agree to the canal. So, U.S. helped Panama rebel against Colombia. So, U.S. helped Panama rebel against Colombia.

70 Panama became independent… Then, U.S. got Panamas permission to build the canal.

71 Construction of the Panama Canal: Work began in 1904 & took 10 years Work began in 1904 & took 10 years In 1913, there were 43,400 workers on the hard & dangerous project. In 1913, there were 43,400 workers on the hard & dangerous project.

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75 Canal officially opens Aug. 15, 1914 Over 1,000 ships passed through that 1 st year

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77 ROOSEVELT COROLLARY Roosevelts statement to Congress in 1904… He wanted the U.S. to be the major power in the Caribbean & Central America

78 Roosevelt Corollary was the logical result of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 Roosevelt now said that the U.S had the right to intervene in Latin American countries to protect U.S. business interests. (Big Stick policy)

79 NICARAGUA In 1911, Pres. Taft used Roosevelts policy in Nicaragua.

80 A rebellion had left the country in debt. A rebellion had left the country in debt. Taft arranged for U.S. bankers to loan Nicaragua $... Taft arranged for U.S. bankers to loan Nicaragua $... In exchange, American business took control of the railroads & banks…also collected Nicaraguas custom duties In exchange, American business took control of the railroads & banks…also collected Nicaraguas custom duties

81 : DOLLAR DIPLOMACY: Nicaraguans didnt like this arrangement. They rebelled. The U.S. sent in troops to Nicaragua preserve peace. Those who didnt like this kind of intervention called it dollar diplomacy.

82 WOODROW WILSONS MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY Why did President Wilson send troops to Mexico?

83 President Wilson took a step beyond Presidents Monroe & Roosevelt… Wilson added a moral tone to Latin American policy. Wilson added a moral tone to Latin American policy. His missionary diplomacy meant that the U.S. could not officially recognize governments that were oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business interests. His missionary diplomacy meant that the U.S. could not officially recognize governments that were oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business interests. A revolution in Mexico tested this policy……. A revolution in Mexico tested this policy…….

84 MEXICAN PEASANTS & WORKERS REBEL: They rebelled in 1910 against their military dictator. They rebelled in 1910 against their military dictator. The start of the Mexican Revolution: the Serdán family opens a revolt in Puebla, Nov.18.1910 The start of the Mexican Revolution: the Serdán family opens a revolt in Puebla, Nov.18.1910 2 new governments followed, the 2 nd headed by General Victoriano Huerta. 2 new governments followed, the 2 nd headed by General Victoriano Huerta.

85 Wilson refused to support the Huerta government b/c it came to power through violence. When a new leader, Venustiano Carranza, took power in Mexico, Wilson withdrew the troops THEN…..

86 Francisco Pancho Villa…. Leader of rebels who revolted against Carranza

87 Some Americans killed by Villas followers….. U.S. wanted to capture Villa. Mexican government gave U.S. permission to send in troops

88 Wilson sent General John J. Pershing to Mexico with 15,000 soldiers A year later, Villa was still free. Wilson then stationed 150,000 NatlGuardsmen along the border.

89 General John J. Pershing PERSHING, JOHN J. Brigadier General, U.S. Army Commander decorations U.S. Army, Supplement V, 1941 Home Town: Laclede, Missouri Date of Action: June 15, 1913

90 Mexicans angered by U.S. invasion. 1916, U.S. troops fought w/Carranzas army. In 1917, Wilson withdrew U.S. troops b/c U.S. was facing possible war in Europe.

91 Mexico finally adopted a constitution, regained control of their own resources & put limits on foreign investment American intervention in Mexico showed how far the U.S. was willing to go to protect its economic interests.

92 COMING NEXT…..

93 WORLD WAR I

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