3IMPERIALISMIMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories.By the 1880’s, many American leaders thought the U.S. should establish colonies overseas.
43 FACTORS FUELED AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: Desire for military strengthThirst for new marketsBelief in the superiority of American culture
5NAVAL POWER Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy Supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete w/other nations
6U.S.S. Maine & OregonU.S. built modern battleships like the Maine & the Oregon.The new ships made the U.S. the world’s largest naval power.
8surplus U.S. was producing more than Americans could consume….. U.S. needed foreign trade.American businesses needed markets for their products & raw materials for their factories.
9Superiority of American Culture: The 3rd root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the U.S. were better than the people of other countriesBelieved they had a duty to spread their culture & Christian religion among other people.
11ALASKAWilliam Seward purchases Alaska, for the U.S., from Russia in 1867.The price? $7.2 million!!
12HAWAII The Background….. The Hawaiian islands had been important to the U.S. since 1790’s.Merchants stopped there on their way to China & India.In 1920’s, American missionaries founded Christian schools & churches on the islands
13Hawaiian sugar plantations… B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by 1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians 3 to 1This weakened the influence of native Hawaiians.
14Powerful Hawaiian sugar growers called for the U. S Powerful Hawaiian sugar growers called for the U.S. to annex Hawaii to avoid the tariffs.In 1887, U.S. military forced Hawaii to let it build a naval base at Pearl Harbor….Hawaii’s best port.
16American business groups organized a revolt against Queen Liliuokalani: U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them revolt.Planters took control of the islandThey established a temporary government .
17QUEEN LILIUOKALANIIn 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave up her throne.Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S.
18They established a temporary government . Made American businessman Sanford B. Dole the president.
191898, HAWAII BECOMES A U.S. TERRITORY Stevens urged U.S. government to annex Hawaiian Islands.President Grover Cleveland refused unless majority of Hawaiians favored that.
201898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. 1897, William McKinley became president.McKinley favored annexation.1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory.
22CUBANS REBEL AGAINST SPAIN B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1st war for independence from Spain.Rebels didn’t win, but forced Spain to abolish slavery in 1886
23U.S. CAPITALISTS INVEST… Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in Cuba.Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S.
24JOSE MARTI 1895, Cubans began 2nd war for independence. Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet & journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y.The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause.
25WAR FEVER ESCALATES!1896, Spain sent an army to Cuba to restore order.Army led by General Valeriano Weyler.Weyler rounded up 300,000 people as prisoners in Concentration camps.
26YELLOW JOURNALISMStories of concentration camps widely reported in U.S. newspapers.Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the brutality to attract readers.(“yellow journalism”)
27William McKinley became U.S. President in 1897. Since many Americans wanted the U.S. to help the rebels against Spain, McKinley tried to find a peaceful solution.
28McKinley’s efforts pay off…. 1) Spain sent General Weyler home2) Changed the concentration camp policy.3) Gave Cuba limited self-government
29But then, 2 events made Americans very angry at Spain….
301) The publication of a letter that insulted the American president… 1) The publication of a letter that insulted the American president….The de Lome letter was written by a Spanish diplomat. It criticized McKinley for being weak.
31U.S.S. MAINE..2) The battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded on February 15, 1898.The ship had been stationed in Cuba to protect American lives.Cause of the explosion was not known….. But…
36THE PHILIPPINES 1st battle took place in the Philippines. Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300 years.In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish.
37George DeweyOn May 1, 1898, American naval commander George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines.His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there.For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on the side of the Filipino rebels.Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to the U.S. in August.
462) Spain gave Puerto Rico & the Pacific Island of Guam to the U.S.
473) U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. For the annexation of the Philippine Islands.
48Debate in U.S. about Imperialism: Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S. .President McKinley was in favor of it.Some Americans said annexing territories violated the spirit of the Declaration of Independence.The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899.
50RULING PUERTO RICO:American forces landed in Puerto Rico in July 1898.Many Puerto Ricans began to resent the military government.In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act which ended military rule & set up a civil government
52Control over CUBA…Although Cuba was officially independent after the war, the U.S. army remained there for 4 yearsIt punished Cubans who were against this American occupation.
53PLATT AMENDMENT:When Cuba’s new government wrote a constitution in 1900, the U.S. insisted they add the “PLATT AMENDMENT”This limited Cuba’s rights in dealing w/other countries….gave the U.S. special privileges, including the right to intervene to preserve order.
54PROTECTORATE…. Cuba became a U.S. “protectorate”. A “Protectorate” is a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.The U.S. insisted on these rights b/c of its economic interests in Cuba.
55FILIPINOS REBELOpponents to American Rule of the PhilippinesThey were angry that the U.S. had annexed their islands after years of fighting for independence.
56EMILIO AGUINALDOFilipino rebel leader who believed that the U.S. had promised independence.He felt the U.S. had betrayed the Filipinos after helping them win independence.
571899, Aguinaldo started a rebellion that lasted 3 years. (Philippine-American War)Pictured below are Filipino P.O.W.’sU.S. won & set up a government similar to the one it had set up in Cuba.
58CHINA: By 1899, many countries had economic interests in China U.S. wanted to be able to trade with China too.Secretary of State John Hay sent the “OPEN DOOR NOTES” to these countries calling for China’s port to be open to ALL countries.
59BOXER REBELLION:In 1900, a secret society in China started a rebellion to protest “western influence”.Troops from countries (including U.S.) fought the rebel, or “Boxers”.After the Boxer Rebellion was defeated, U.S. issued more Open Door notes to make sure other countries didn’t make colonies out of China.
61How did Americans feel about U.S. imperialism? With the reelection of President William McKinley in 1900, it seems that most Americans agreed w/imperialism.An Anti-Imperialist League formed including former president Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, & Mark Twain.
63President McKinley Assassinated! Pres. McKinley assassinated in 1901.Teddy Roosevelt becomes president & continues policies of “imperialism”
64TEDDY ROOSEVELT & THE WORLD…. Roosevelt 1st used U.S. influence to help settle the Russo-Japanese War
65RUSSO-JAPANESE WARBegan in 1904 when both Russia & Japan wanted to control Korea.Japan captured Korea & also invaded Manchuria… which was controlled by Russia
66Roosevelt mediates… 1905, representatives of Russia & Japan met. Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate a compromise.They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway.
67PANAMA CANALIdea was to build a canal to connect the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans.Such a canal would cut travel time for ships b/c they wouldn’t have to go all the way around South America.
68Panama was a province of Columbia. Columbia did not agree to the canal.So, U.S. helped Panama rebel against Colombia.
69Panama became independent… Then, U.S. got Panama’s permission to build the canal.
70Construction of the Panama Canal: Work began in 1904 & took 10 yearsIn 1913, there were 43,400 workers on the hard & dangerous project.
76ROOSEVELT COROLLARYRoosevelt’s statement to Congress in 1904… He wanted the U.S. to be the major power in the Caribbean & Central America
77Roosevelt Corollary was the logical result of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 Roosevelt now said that the U.S had the right to intervene in Latin American countries to protect U.S. business interests.(“Big Stick” policy)
78In 1911, Pres. Taft used Roosevelt’s policy in Nicaragua.
79A rebellion had left the country in debt. Taft arranged for U.S. bankers to loan Nicaragua $...In exchange, American business took control of the railroads & banks…also collected Nicaragua’s custom duties
80DOLLAR DIPLOMACY: Nicaraguans didn’t like this arrangement. They rebelled. The U.S. sent in troops to Nicaragua preserve peace.Those who didn’t like this kind of intervention called it “dollar diplomacy”.
81WOODROW WILSON’S MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY Why did President Wilson send troops to Mexico?
82President Wilson took a step beyond Presidents Monroe & Roosevelt… Wilson added a “moral” tone to Latin American policy.His “missionary diplomacy” meant that the U.S. could not officially recognize governments that were oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business interests.A revolution in Mexico tested this policy…….
83MEXICAN PEASANTS & WORKERS REBEL: They rebelled in 1910 against their military dictator.The start of the Mexican Revolution: the Serdán family opens a revolt in Puebla, Nov2 new governments followed, the 2nd headed by General Victoriano Huerta.
84Wilson refused to support the Huerta government b/c it came to power through violence. When a new leader, Venustiano Carranza, took power in Mexico, Wilson withdrew the troopsTHEN…..
85Francisco “Pancho” Villa… Francisco “Pancho” Villa…. Leader of rebels who revolted against Carranza
86Some American’s killed by Villa’s followers….. U.S. wanted to capture Villa.Mexican government gave U.S. permission to send in troops
87Wilson sent General John J. Pershing to Mexico with 15,000 soldiers A year later, Villa was still free.Wilson then stationed 150,000 Natl’Guardsmen along the border.
88General John J. Pershing PERSHING, JOHN J. Brigadier General, U.S. Army Commander decorations U.S. Army, Supplement V, Home Town: Laclede, Missouri Date of Action: June 15, 1913
89Mexicans angered by U.S. invasion. 1916, U.S. troops fought w/Carranza’s army.In 1917, Wilson withdrew U.S. troops b/c U.S. was facing possible war in Europe.
90Mexico finally adopted a constitution, regained control of their own resources & put limits on foreign investmentAmerican intervention in Mexico showed how far the U.S. was willing to go to protect its economic interests.