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Principles of Flow Measurement Franklin L. Scamman, MD Physics Series November 26, 2002

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Principles of Flow Q = Pressure/Resistance Laminar Turbulent

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Vertical Flow Tube

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How a Vertical Flow Tube Works

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Tandem Flow Tubes

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Rotameter

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Positive Displacement- Narcomed

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Rotameter- Ohmeda SE

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Pneumotach

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Flow Measurement Principle P1 P2 Counter pressure sensor flow in flow out Electronic flow measurement principle - laminar flow restrictions create a pressure difference P 1 - flow is calculated from P 1 l Used with Oxygen, Side gas, Bypass, and Agent flows Laminar flow restriction P 1 Ambient pressure P2 P1 = pressure difference P2 = correction (off-set) to ambient pressure

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Clinical Spirometry Pitot tubes measure the pressure difference created by the gas flow Knowing the amount of pressure difference allows the gas module to calculate flow Flow is mathematically integrated over time to calculate volume

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Pitot Tube Principles

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Agent Adjustment Bypass flow measurement Agent flow measurement Aladin TM cassetteTemperature sensor Cassette ID Magnets Agent proportional. valve Inflow close valve Outflow close valve One way valve liquid flow prevention Restrictor

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Agent Adjustment 1 2 3 3

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Cardiac Thermodilution

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Mathematics of Thermodilution Quantity = Volume X Concentration Volume = Flow X Time Quantity = Flow X Time X Concentration Flow = Quantity / (Time X Concentration)

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Plot of Washout Curve

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High and Low Cardiac Output

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