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**11 Trigonometry (2) Contents 11.1 Area of Triangles 11.2 Sine Formula**

11.3 Cosine Formula 11.4 Applications in Two-dimensional Problems Home

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**11.1 Area of Triangles A. Area Formula of Triangles**

In Fig. 11.6, we take BC as the base and AD as the height of the triangle. Fig. 11.6 Substituting h = b sin C into (*), we have

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**11.1 Area of Triangles B. Heron’s Formula**

Another important formula for calculating the area of a triangle is Heron’s formula. Heron’s Formula For any triangles with the length of all the three sides known, Heron’s formula can be used to calculate its area.

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**11.2 Sine Formula The Sine Formula states that:**

For any triangle, the length of a side is directly proportional to the sine of its opposite angle. Or mathematically, the sine formula can be expresses as: or

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11.2 Sine Formula A. Solving a Triangle with Two Angles and Any Side Given If any two angles (A and B) of a triangle and a side (a) opposite to one of the angles are given, we can use the sine formula directly to find b: Fig If any two angles (A and B) of a triangle are given, but the given side c is not an opposite side, we should find the third angle (C) first, then we can use the sine formula:

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11.2 Sine Formula B. Solving a Triangle with Two Sides and One Non-included Angle Given Example 11.5T In ABC, a = 16 cm, b = 14 cm and B = 48. (a) Find the possible values of A. (b) How many triangles can be formed? Solution: (a) By sine formula, (b) Two triangles can be formed.

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11.3 Cosine Formula The following formulas are known as the cosine formulas: Cosine Formulas Notes: So Pythagoras’ Theorem is a special case of cosine formula for right-angled triangles.

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**11.4 Applications in Two-dimensional Problems**

A. Angle of Elevation and Angle of Depression When we observe an object above us, the angle between our line of sight and the horizontal is called the angle of elevation (see Fig (a)). Fig (a) When we observe an object below us, the angle between the line of sight and the horizontal is called the angle of depression (see Fig (b)). Fig (b)

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**11.4 Applications in Two-dimensional Problems**

B. Bearing When using compass bearing, all angles are measured from north (N) or South (S), thus the bearing is represented in the form (a) The compass bearing of A from O is N30E. (b) The compass bearing of B from O is S40W. Fig (a)

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**11.4 Applications in Two-dimensional Problems**

B. Bearing When using true bearing, all angles are measured from the north in a clockwise direction. The bearing is expressed in the form , where 0 < 360. For example, in Fig (b), O, C and D lie on the same plane. (a) The bearing of C from O is 050. (b) The bearing of D from O is 210. Fig (b)

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