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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Chapter 11 The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea One circular chromosome, not in a membrane No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the  - proteobacteria described in this chapter.

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bergey’s Manual Categorizes bacteria into taxa based upon rRNA sequences Lists identifying characteristics like: Gram stain reaction cellular morphology oxygen requirements nutritional properties Prokaryotes classified into two domains: Bacteria Archaea

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacteria essential to life on earth Proteobacteria Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes Gram- negative Domain Bacteria

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

6 Human pathogens: Bartonella B. henselaCat-scratch disease BrucellaBrucellosis The  (alpha) Proteobacteria

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Includes nitrogen-fixing bacteria, chemoautotrophs, and chemoheterotrophs Obligate intracellular parasites: Ehrlichia. Tick-borne, ehrlichiosis Rickettsia. Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers R. prowazekiiEpidemic typhus R. typhiEndemic murine typhus R. rickettsiiRocky Mountain Spotted Fever The  (alpha) Proteobacteria

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (alpha) Proteobacteria Figure 11.1

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Wolbachia. Live in insects and other animals In an infected pair, only female hosts can reproduce “Popcorn” strain causes host cells to lyse Possible biological control of insects The  (alpha) Proteobacteria

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Have prosthecae: Caulobacter. Stalked bacteria found in lakes Hyphomicrobium. Budding bacteria found in lakes The  (alpha) Proteobacteria Figure 11.2 & 3

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plant pathogen: Agrobacterium. Insert a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor The  (alpha) Proteobacteria Figure 9.17

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemoautotrophic: Oxidize nitrogen for energy Fix CO 2 Nitrobacter. NH 3 +  NO 2 – Nitrosomonas. NO 2 –  NO 3 – The  (alpha) Proteobacteria

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Azospirillum Grow in soil, using nutrients excreted by plants Fix nitrogen Rhizobium Fix nitrogen in the roots of plants The  (alpha) Proteobacteria Figure 27.5

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol: Acetobacter Gluconobacter The  (alpha) Proteobacteria

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

16 The  (beta) Proteobacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the  -proteobacteria described in this chapter.

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thiobacillus Chemoautotrophic, oxidize sulfur: H 2 S  SO 4 2– Sphaerotilus Chemoheterotophic, form sheaths The  (beta) Proteobacteria Figure 11.5 Sphaerotilus natans: Sheathed bacteria found in dilute sewage and aquatic environs

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spirillum volutans: Chemoheterotrophic, helical Note polar flagella Neisseria Chemoheterotrophic, cocci N. meningitidis N. gonorrhoeae (diplo- cocci) – fimbriae attach to mucous membranes for greater pathogenicity The  (beta) Proteobacteria Figure 11.4 & 6

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bordetella Chemoheterotrophic, rods B. pertussis (pertussis or whooping cough) Burkholderia. Nosocomial infections (hospital infection) Extraordinary nutritional spectrum, able to degrade > 100 different organic molecules, can grow in disinfectant! Zoogloea. Slimy masses in aerobic sewage-treatment processes – essential to sewage treatment The  (beta) Proteobacteria

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

21 The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the  - proteobacteria described in this chapter.

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonas Gram - Opportunistic pathogens Metabolically diverse Polar flagella (characteristic, as in picture) Azotobacter and Azomonas.Nitrogen fixing Moraxella.Conjunctivitis The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Figure 11.7

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Legionellales: Legionella Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers of air-conditioning L. pneumophilia (Legionnaire's) Coxiella Q fever transmitted via aerosols or milk The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Figure 24.15b Coxiella burnetii

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vibrionales: Found in coastal water Vibrio cholerae causes cholera Slight curvature of rods V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis (raw/undercooked shellfish) The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Figure 11.8

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Enterobacteriales (enterics – intestinal tracts): Peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic Enterobacter Erwinia Escherichia Klebsiella Proteus Salmonella Serratia Shigella Yersinia The  (gamma) Proteobacteria

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (gamma) Proteobacteria Figure 11.9a, b Proteus mirabilis – swarmer due to multiple flagella

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pasteurellales: Non-motile Human and animal pathogens Pasteurella Cause pneumonia and septicemia Haemophilus Require X factor (heme) and V factor (NAD +, NADP + ) factors from blood hemoglobin H. influenzae – several important diseases (meningitis, earaches, epiglotitis, bronchitis, etc.) The  (gamma) Proteobacteria

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Beggiatoa Chemoautotrophic, oxidize H 2 S to S 0 for energy Interface between aerobic and anaerobic layers in aquatic sediments Factor in discovery of of autotrophic metabolism Francisella Chemoheterotrophic, tularemia The  (gamma) Proteobacteria

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

30 The  (delta) Proteobacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the  - proteobacteria described in this chapter.

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bdellovibrio. Prey on other bacteria Desulfovibrionales. Use S instead of O 2 as final electron acceptor (sulfur reducing) Releases tons of H 2 S into atmosphere, key part in sulfur cycle Myxococcales. Gliding. Cells aggregate to form myxospores (stalked fruiting body – 2 nd slide next) Leave behind a slime trail (next slide) Nutrition from bacteria they encounter The  (delta) Proteobacteria

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (delta) Proteobacteria Figure 11.10a

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (delta) Proteobacteria Figure 11.1b

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the  - proteobacteria described in this chapter.

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria Figure 11.1a Helicobacter Multiple flagella Peptic ulcers Stomach cancer Campylobacter One polar flagellum Gastroenteritis

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Helicobacter pylori: Example of a helical bacterium that doesn’t make a complete twist (different from spirochetes)

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

38

39 The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the gram- negative nonproteobacteria described in this chapter.

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Oxygenic photosynthesis Once called blue-green algae Water species have gas vacuoles for buoyancy Gliding motility Fix nitrogen in heterocysts Played important part in development of life on earth, producing oxygen atmosphere Cyanobacteria

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cyanobacteria Figure 11.12a-c

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

43 Anoxygenic photosynthesis Purple and green sulfur bacteria (bottom formula) Purple and Green Photosynthetic Bacteria 2H 2 O + CO 2 light (CH 2 O) + H 2 O + O 2 2H 2 S + CO 2 light (CH 2 O) + H 2 O + 2S 0 Learning objective: Compare and contrast purple and green photosynthetic bacteria with cyanobacteria

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Purple sulfur bacteria: intracellular sulfur granules (multicolored refractile objects (anoxygenic photoautotrophs)

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Low G + C Gram-positive Firmicutes Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the low G + C gram-positive described in this chapter.

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clostridium Endospore- producing Obligate anaerobes Endospores usually distend the cell wall Epulopiscium Very large, shown on the head of a pin rRNA determined placement with prokaryotes Clostridiales Figure & 15

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacillus Endospore-producing rods B. anthracis - anthrax Bacillales Figure 11.16b

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Staphylococcus aureus Cocci in grapelike clusters Gram-positive, produces enterotoxin Grow fairly well under high osmotic pressure and low moisture (nasal secretions, skin, ham and other cured meats) Bacillales Figure 1.17

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Generally aerotolerant anaerobes, lack an electron-transport chain Lactobacillus – lactic- acid producing Streptococcus – more illnesses and diseases than any other bacteria group Enterococcus – intestinal tract, oral cavity Listeria – contaminates dairy Lactobacillales Figure Streptococcus – many of spherical cells are dividing and somewhat oval

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mycoplasma pneumoniae No cell walls Pleomorphic (irregular cells) Arrows indicate terminal structures that likely aid attachment to eukaryotic cells µm Filamentous growth of M. pneumoniae Reproduces by fragmentation of the filaments Mycoplasmatales Figure 11.19a, b

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings High G + C Gram-positive Actinobacteria Learning objective: Make a dichotomous key to distinguish among the high G + C gram-positive described in this chapter.

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Actinomyces Corynebacterium Frankia Gardnerella Mycobacterium Nocardia Propionibacterium Streptomyces Actinobacteria Figure 11.20b

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Streptomyces – Filamentous branching growth with asexual reproductive conidiospores at tips Make up much of soil bacteria

54 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Actinomyces – notice branched filamentous morphology

55 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings C. trachomatis Trachoma STD, urethritis C. pneumoniae C. psittaci Causes psittacosis Chlamydiae

56 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Generalized life cycle of Chlamydia (48 hours) Figure 11.22a

57 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Generalized life cycle of Chlamydia Figure 11.22b Elementary bodies – infectious stage Reticulate bodies – reproduce in host cell Intermediate bodies – stage in between

58 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Borrelia Leptospira Treponema Spirochaetes Figure Spirochetes – Helical, axial filaments under outer sheath Move by corkscrewlike rotation

59 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anaerobic Bacteroides. In mouth and large intestine Cytophaga. Cellulose-degrading in soil Phyla Bacteroidetes & Fusobacteria Fusobacterium Found in mouth May be involved in dental diseases

60 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hyperthermophiles (heat) Pyrodictium Sulfolobus Methanogens (methane) Methanobacterium Extreme halophiles (salt) Halobacterium Domain Archaea Figure Archaea – Pyrodictium abyssi: Deep ocean, 110 degrees C Cells disk-shaped with network of tubules (cannulae)

61 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacteria size range Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks Microbial Diversity Figure Thiomargarita namibiensis: Energy from reduced sulfur compounds

62 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Few of the total number of prokaryotes have been isolated and identified PCR indicates up to 10,000 bacteria/gm of soil. Many bacteria have not been identified or characterized because they: Haven't been cultured Need special nutrients Are part of complex food chains requiring the products of other bacteria Need to be cultured to understand their metabolism and ecological role Microbial Diversity


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