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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Conceptions of Adolescence Biological Perspective Puberty Storm and Stress Freud – genital stage Social Perspective Cultural influences Balanced Point of View Both biological and social influences
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Hormonal Changes in Puberty Growth Hormone and Thryoxine – increase around age 8 – 9 Estrogens More in girls Adrenal estrogens Androgens More in boys Testosterone
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sex Differences in Body Growth in Adolescence BoysGirls Growth Spurt Starts age 12 and 1/2 Starts age 10 Proportions Shoulders broaden Longer legs Hips broaden Muscle-Fat Makeup Gain more muscle, aerobic efficiency Gain more fat
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sleep Habits in Adolescence Sleep needs decline 10 hours in middle childhood 7.5 – 8 hours in adolescence Go to bed later Biological changes Social habits Daytime sleepiness Achievement, mood problems More sleep disruption
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sports Participation in High School
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sexual Maturation Primary Sexual Characteristics Maturation of the reproductive organs Girls: menarche Boys: spermarche Secondary Sexual Characteristics Other visible parts of the body that signal sexual maturity Girls: breasts Boys: facial hair, voice change Both: underarm hair
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Individual Differences in Timing of Puberty Heredity Nutrition, exercise Body fat in girls Geographical location SES Ethnic group Secular trend
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Psychological and Emotional Reactions to Puberty Reactions to menarche and spermarche vary Preparation is the key Adolescent moodiness Parent-child conflict
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Consequences of Timing of Puberty BoysGirls Early Maturing Popular Confident, independent Positive body image Unpopular Withdrawn, low confidence, negative body image More deviant behavior Late Maturing Unpopular Anxious, talkative, attention-seeking Negative body image Popular Sociable, lively Positive body image
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Nutrition in Adolescence Calorie needs increase Poor food choices common Less fruits, vegetables, milk, breakfast More soda, fast food Iron, vitamin deficiencies Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sexual Activity in Adolescence Recent decline in sexual activity Substantial percentage sexually active Males start earlier than females Few partners American, Canadian rates same as other Western countries
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Adolescent Contraceptive Use Recent increase in contraceptive use Still, 20% American, 13% Canadian do not use Reasons for not using: Concern about image Adolescent risk taking Social environment Forced intercourse
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sequence of Coming Out Feeling Different – ages 6 – 12 Confusion – ages 11 – 15 Acceptance – timing varies
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Adolescent Pregnancy 900,000 American teen girls each year, 30,000 under age – 45% get abortion 75% of teen mothers unmarried. Problems: Educational achievement Marital patterns Economic circumstances Parenting skills and ability
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Adolescents’ Substance Use Have tried, by age 14: Cigarettes – 56% Alcohol – 70% Illegal drugs – 32% By end of high school: 22% smoke regularly 60% tried heavy drinking 50%+ tried illegal drugs
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Piaget’s Theory: Formal Operational Stage Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Deducing hypotheses from a general theory Pendulum problem Propositional Thought Evaluating the logic of verbal propositions Formal Operational thought may not be universal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Information Processing Improvements in Adolescence Attention Memory strategies Knowledge Metacognition Cognitive self-regulation Processing capacity Speed of thinking
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Consequences of Abstract Thought Argumentativeness Self-Consciousness & Self-Focusing Imaginary audience Sensitivity to criticism Personal fable Idealism and Criticism Planning and Decision Making Overwhelming options
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sex Differences in Mental Abilities Girls better on verbal tests; boys on mathematical tests Genetics Male spatial reasoning Female left (language) hemisphere Environment “Masculine” and “feminine” school subjects Class participation, teaching styles Differences declining
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 School Transitions in Adolescence Grades decline with each transition Higher standards Less supportive teaching- learning environment Lower self esteem More with 6 – 3 – 3 organization than 8 – 4 Girls more than boys
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Statistics on Dropping Out
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Dropout Prevention Strategies High-quality vocational training Remedial instruction Personalized counseling Address factors in students’ lives outside school Extracurricular activities
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Supporting High Achievement during Adolescence Child-rearing practices Authoritative Joint decision making Peer influences School characteristics Teachers High-level thinking Student participation Employment Less than 15 hrs/week Vocational education
CHAPTER 15 Physical Development & Health. A Developmental Transition Initiation Coming of Age Rituals: Common Example: Apache Tribes, 4-Day Chanting Celebration.
5 th Edition Copyright © Prentice Hall Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana.
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