3 of 26 How can we apply the CPC Way to science? Science is a real problem area for many students. There are several reasons for this problem. One reason is the large quantity of information to be learned at one time. A second reason is that much of the information may consist of strange words. In this lesson we will see how we can apply the CPC Way to learning biology, botany, and physics. Lesson Goals In this lesson you will: Lesson 11: Science Click here to continue. Practice applying the CPC Way to science.
4 of 26 Before looking at some science examples, however, let's quickly review the CPC Way. C = Capacity P = Pyramid or outline of keywords C = Chunking information into a single, meaningful whole Review of the CPC Way Lesson 11: Science
5 of 26 In biology, as in much of science, we need to learn names. In the graphic to the right, the parts of the digestive system are identified. Specifically, 10 names are given. Biology Lesson 11: Science
6 of 26 Few of us are capable of remembering 10 things at one time. Therefore, trying to learn them all together is a difficult task. If we grouped them, however, as shown in this graphic, we can now easily recall the three parts and then 10 names of the digestive system. Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
7 of 26 The upper part has three names, the middle part has four, and the lower part has three. We can now think digestive system: (1) upper, (2) middle, and (3) lower. Upper: mouth, salivary glands, and esophagus. Middle: liver, stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas. Lower: small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
8 of 26 As you recall these parts, you should be able to visualize the picture of the body and where the parts are located and what they look like. Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
9 of 26 Here is an outline: Digestive System 1. Upper a. mouth b. salivary glands c. esophagus 2. Middle a. liver b. stomach c. gall bladder d. pancreas 3. Lower a. small intestine b. large intestine c. rectum Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
10 of 26 Do you see how much easier it becomes to remember the names? Why? It is because you are applying the CPC system. C: Your capacity is not exceeded in learning each part (e.g, 1. Upper, mouth, salivary glands, esophagus are only four things). Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
11 of 26 Do you see how much easier it becomes to remember the names? Why? It is because you are applying the CPC system. P: The pyramid (outline) makes it easy for you to see the relationships (e.g., the upper part of the digestive system is composed of the mouth, salivary glands, and esophagus). Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
12 of 26 Do you see how much easier it becomes to remember the names? Why? It is because you are applying the CPC system. C: You chunk things together in quantities that do not exceed your capacity; namely, you can think of Upper and recall mouth, salivary glands, and esophagus. Many students would have problems in spelling, for example, esophagus. The way to remember it is eso pha gus, esopha gus, esophagus. Biology Lesson 11: Science Upper Middle Lower
13 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science Suppose you had to learn the parts of a flower for a botany class. Instead of trying to learn everything from a single flower showing all of the names of the parts, the flower could be redrawn in two sections, as shown in this figure.
14 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science Now it is easier to learn the two parts—left and right. The spelling and functions of the parts could be learned as shown there.
15 of 26 A. Spelling Part One (left half) 1. petals: pet al s, petal s, petals 2. sepal: se pal, sepal 3. stem REVIEW Botany Part Two (right half) 4. stamen: sta men, stamen 5. pistil: pis til, pistil 6. ovary: ov ary, ovary 7. ovule: ov ule, ovule REVIEW Lesson 11: Science
16 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science B. Functions 1. Part one a. petals—inner part, nectar; The inner part of the flower is protected by the petals. Their color and perfume may bring insects to drink the nectar. b. sepal—bud: The bud of the flower is protected by the sepal. c. stem—water, plant. Water is carried up the leaves by the stem. It holds up the plant.
17 of 26 B. Functions 1. Part one b. sepal—bud: The bud of the flower is protected by the sepal. c. stem—water, plant. Water is carried up the leaves by the stem. It holds up the plant. Botany Lesson 11: Science
18 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science B. Functions 2. Part two a. stamen—pollen: Pollen grains are produced by the stamen for making new seeds. b. pistil—ovules: This is a pod containing the ovules and is located in the very center or the plant.
19 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science B. Functions 2. Part two c. ovary—hollow part: The hollow part of the pistil, the ovary, contains ovules. d. ovule—seed: This part becomes the seed after fertilization.
20 of 26 Botany Lesson 11: Science Again, let's see how we applied the CPC Way. C: The capacity of most sixth grade middle- school students is about five. P: The outline presents no more than four things at a time, and the spelling words are separated into no more than three letter groupings. C: Chunking can progress in quantities that do not exceed the capacity of most middle-school students.
21 of 26 Science teachers were puzzled that so many students could not master Archimedes' principle of specific gravity, for it only covered about a half-page in the textbook. They wanted to know what could be done. Physics Lesson 11: Science
22 of 26 A look at the text describing the principle provides a good reason for the students' poor achievement. You have heard the expression, "It's all Greek to me." It means something is impossible to understand and might as well be in a foreign language. The same thing applied to Archimedes' principle. Physics Lesson 11: Science
23 of 26 A list of the vocabulary is shown below. Can you define these words? Physics exertballastbuoyantdense objectbalsaimmersedforce platform balancesubmergedoverflowbrimful apparent lossdisplacedimprecisedensity specific gravitycorkmaplekerosene compressing The teacher should explain the vocabulary in groups shown in the next slide. When students can understand the words, then they can understand the principle. Lesson 11: Science
24 of 26 Fluids immersed submerged buoyant density apparent loss Fluids immersed submerged buoyant density apparent loss Physics Substance balsa cork maple kerosene dense object Substance balsa cork maple kerosene dense object Overflow brimful force displaced compressing exert Overflow brimful force displaced compressing exert Balance platform balance ballast dense imprecise specific gravity Balance platform balance ballast dense imprecise specific gravity Lesson 11: Science
25 of 26 You have completed another lesson. You have now completed 11 lessons that cover just about any subject that you will be learning in school. If the topic was not specifically covered, you can still learn it by applying the CPC study skills. Cool! Lesson 11: Science
26 of 26 In Lesson Eleven you saw how you could apply the CPC Way to three scientific fields of study— biology, botany, and physics. Next One topic remains: Tests. Do you know what would happen if everyone in class were given one extra point? You’ll find out in the last lesson. Click the Next button to get started with Lesson Twelve. Summary Lesson 11: Science