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Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism. Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in the organism. It is the way in which a cell.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism. Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in the organism. It is the way in which a cell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

2 Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in the organism. It is the way in which a cell manages its material and energy resources. The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in the organism. It is the way in which a cell manages its material and energy resources.

3 Pathways Within the Cell Anabolic: These are the build up pathways that use starting materials to build biologically useful molecules. Anabolic: These are the build up pathways that use starting materials to build biologically useful molecules. Catabolic: These are the breakdown pathways that use energy stored in the bonds of starting materials to drive the synthesis of energetic molecules.

4 Anabolic Pathways Building proteins from amino acids we obtain from eating food.

5 Catabolic Pathways Forming ATP from Glucose. Glucose comes from the food we eat. ATP is the energy source for the cell. Forming ATP from Glucose. Glucose comes from the food we eat. ATP is the energy source for the cell.

6 2 Main Types of Energy: Potential Energy: The stored energy or the energy of position. Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion. Potential Energy: The stored energy or the energy of position. Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion.

7 Chemical Energy This is a form of potential energy because it is energy that is stored. It is stored in the bonds of the molecule.

8 Thermodynamics The study of energy transformation in a collection of matter is known as thermodynamics.

9 The System Vs. The Surroundings The system is the matter to be studied. The surroundings are everything outside of the system.

10 Two Types of Systems An open system is one in which energy can be transferred to its surroundings. A closed system is one that is isolated from its surroundings--no energy transfer takes place between the system and its surroundings.

11 Two Laws Which Govern Energy Transformations The first law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics

12 The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, it can only change form. The energy is constant within the universe.

13 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy within the universe is increasing.

14 Gibbs Free Energy In terms of the energy in a system, the only thing we are concerned with is the free energy--known as the Gibbs Free Energy. Gibbs Free Energy is the energy that is available to do work. In terms of the energy in a system, the only thing we are concerned with is the free energy--known as the Gibbs Free Energy. Gibbs Free Energy is the energy that is available to do work.

15 Enthalpy and Entropy Enthalpy is the heat of a system Entropy is the randomness of a system. Enthalpy is the heat of a system Entropy is the randomness of a system.

16 Gibbs Free Energy G = H -T S H = Enthalpy of a system T = Temperature in Kelvin S = Entropy of a system G = H -T S H = Enthalpy of a system T = Temperature in Kelvin S = Entropy of a system

17 Gibbs Free Energy When G is negative, the reaction is said to be spontaneous and the free energy of the reaction can be used by the cell. Spontaneous doesnt necessarily mean that the reaction occurs quickly. When G is negative, the reaction is said to be spontaneous and the free energy of the reaction can be used by the cell. Spontaneous doesnt necessarily mean that the reaction occurs quickly.

18 Chemical Reactions Exergonic--release heat, G is negative, and they are said to be spontaneous. The molecules give off energy as they are broken down. Exergonic--release heat, G is negative, and they are said to be spontaneous. The molecules give off energy as they are broken down. Endergonic--need heat to go, G is positive, and they are non-spontaneous. The molecules created by this reaction store energy.

19 How does this relate to cells? Within a cell, exergonic reactions are used to drive endergonic ones. ATP is an exergonic molecule that supplies energy for chemical reaction within a cell. Within a cell, exergonic reactions are used to drive endergonic ones. ATP is an exergonic molecule that supplies energy for chemical reaction within a cell.

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21 ATP When a phosphate bond is broken in the ATP molecule, 7.3kcal of energy is given off and used by the cell to power endergonic reactions. This process is called coupling. Coupling is when an endergonic reaction is coupled to the breaking of a phosphate bond from ATP. When a phosphate bond is broken in the ATP molecule, 7.3kcal of energy is given off and used by the cell to power endergonic reactions. This process is called coupling. Coupling is when an endergonic reaction is coupled to the breaking of a phosphate bond from ATP.

22 Example When the body synthesizes glutamine from glutamic acid and ammonia, energy is required (endergonic). To make the reaction go, it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP (which is exergonic). When the ATP is hydrolyzed, an intermediate is phosphorylated. The intermediate is moe reactive and reacts easier and more quickly to give the desired result. When the body synthesizes glutamine from glutamic acid and ammonia, energy is required (endergonic). To make the reaction go, it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP (which is exergonic). When the ATP is hydrolyzed, an intermediate is phosphorylated. The intermediate is moe reactive and reacts easier and more quickly to give the desired result.

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24 ATP Generation Just as ATP is used to power cellular processes, it is regenerated from catabolic pathways. Energy releasing processes such as cellular respiration provide energy for synthesizing ATP. Just as ATP is used to power cellular processes, it is regenerated from catabolic pathways. Energy releasing processes such as cellular respiration provide energy for synthesizing ATP.

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26 Enzymes Enzymes are used by the cell to lower the activation energy required for a chemical reaction. Most enzymes are proteins. Enzymes are used by the cell to lower the activation energy required for a chemical reaction. Most enzymes are proteins.

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28 Enzymes More specifically, within a cell, enzymes are proteins that bind to a specific substrate on which the enzyme acts forming an enzyme-substrate complex.

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30 Enzymes The enzyme- substrate complex forms an induced (tight) fit between the enzyme and the substrate at the active site.

31 Lowering of the Activation Energy There are a variety of ways in which the enzyme lowers the activation energy of a reaction.

32 Lowering of the Activation Energy 1. The active site acts as a mediator that brings things close together so they can react. 2. The substrate molecules can be stretched toward their transition state which stresses bonds that need to be broken during a chemical reaction. 1. The active site acts as a mediator that brings things close together so they can react. 2. The substrate molecules can be stretched toward their transition state which stresses bonds that need to be broken during a chemical reaction.

33 Lowering of the Activation Energy 3. The enzyme may make the microenvironment for a reaction more favorable than normal. 4. The active site may actually participate in the chemical reaction (covalently) and the remaining steps of the reaction restore the enzyme to its beginning conformation enabling it to perform another reaction. 3. The enzyme may make the microenvironment for a reaction more favorable than normal. 4. The active site may actually participate in the chemical reaction (covalently) and the remaining steps of the reaction restore the enzyme to its beginning conformation enabling it to perform another reaction.

34 How Enzymes Work 08_15HowEnzymesWork_A.swf

35 Things which affect enzyme function Temperature and pH denature the protein. Cofators help an enzyme function. Often inorganic, metal ions are an example Coenzymes which are organic substances also help. Often organic, vitamins are an example Temperature and pH denature the protein. Cofators help an enzyme function. Often inorganic, metal ions are an example Coenzymes which are organic substances also help. Often organic, vitamins are an example

36 Things which affect enzyme function Inhibitors--slow or stop enzyme activity Competitive inhibitors--compete with substrate molecules for the active site of an enzyme. Non-competitive inhibitors bind to a spot other than the active site altering the active site slowing a reaction. Inhibitors--slow or stop enzyme activity Competitive inhibitors--compete with substrate molecules for the active site of an enzyme. Non-competitive inhibitors bind to a spot other than the active site altering the active site slowing a reaction.

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38 Regulation of Enzyme Activity Allosteric regulation--occurs when a regulatory molecule binds reversibly to the enzyme slowing or stopping an enzymes function.

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41 Regulation of Enzyme Activity Feedback inhibition occurs when a metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of an end product to an enzyme early in the pathway. This is a way for the cell to conserve energy. Feedback inhibition occurs when a metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of an end product to an enzyme early in the pathway. This is a way for the cell to conserve energy.

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43 Plasmolysis 07_13Plasmolysis_SV.mpg

44 Endocytosis 07_20_ExocytEndoIntro_A.swf

45 Exocytosis 07_20_Exocytosis_A.swf

46 Phagocytosis 07_20aPhagocytosis_A.swf

47 Pinocytosis 07_20bPinocytosis_A.swf

48 Receptor Mediated Endocytosis 07_20cReceptMedEndocyt_A.swf


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