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Potential for including an understanding of human and organisational behaviour Chris Clegg 14.05.09.

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Presentation on theme: "Potential for including an understanding of human and organisational behaviour Chris Clegg 14.05.09."— Presentation transcript:

1 Potential for including an understanding of human and organisational behaviour Chris Clegg

2 2 Centre for Socio-Technical Systems Design New centre, £2m+ investment by Leeds University Focus on human and organisational behaviour in complex systems Inter-disciplinary -- Business School, Mech. Eng, Civil Eng, Process Eng, Computing, Psychology, Geography, Health Services, ….. Directed by Chris Clegg Focused on –Design of new ways of working (incl. computer systems) –Design of new buildings and infrastructures

3 3 Socio-technical Systems (Chris Clegg, 2008)

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5 5 Capability maturity

6 6 Simulation of Process Routinely simulate products Long-standing and improving capability (taken years to develop) Extend logic and capability to process One way of climbing the S-curve Early days -- modest expectations but develop capability now for future benefits

7 7 Relevant projects Modelling retail behaviours –Funded by EPSRC (Nottingham) –Undertaken in John Lewis Modelling engineering design teams –Funded by DTI and Rolls-Royce (Soton) –Undertaken in Rolls-Royce and Jaguar Understanding crowd behaviours –Funded by Cabinet Office/ Emergency Planning College –Included analysis of simulation models and gaps Modelling energy provision and use –Funded by EPSRC (just about to start) (Nottingham) –Undertaken in Leeds City Reducing energy (and water) usage in existing office buildings –Draft proposal to EPSRC and/ or TSB –Arup, Amey, Imperial, RCA Modelling human behaviour in financial systems –Seeking funding for a scoping study

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9 9 What psychology might be able to offer? Offer and test valid theories of human behaviour Collate and collect valid and reliable data Develop and use typologies for humans and organisations Help select and populate parameters in models Help develop rules of behaviour Offer a different mindset Develop and test new hypotheses Ask different questions Introduce additional techniques

10 10 Offer and test valid theories of human behaviour (e.g., theories on attitude and behaviour change) Collate and collect valid and reliable data (e.g., using surveys, games, observations, behaviour sampling, knowledge elicitation techniques) Develop and use typologies for humans and organisations (e.g., Innovators, Early Adopters, …. Laggards) Help select and populate parameters in models (e.g., for households, is it income, family size, green commitment, group membership and norms, or what?)

11 11 Help develop rules of behaviour (e.g., if short-term perceptions of child safety > perceived longer- term social costs of driving, then school run will persist) Offer a different mindset (e.g., humans and organisations are pragmatic creatures of habit and routine, but also subject to social influence, and they can be nudged) Develop and test new hypotheses (e.g., human behaviour at home spills over into behaviour at work)

12 12 Ask different questions (e.g., how can we understand and address resistance to change? how do we address habits and routines at home and at work? how can we get users to own their energy use and costs? what is the role of good design?) Introduce additional techniques (e.g., scenarios planning, social network analysis, behaviour sampling)

13 13 Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen 1991) Attitude toward the behaviour Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioural Control Control Beliefs Normative Beliefs Behavioural Intentions Behaviour Outcome Beliefs

14 14 Influence Network

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16 16 What psychology might be able to offer? Offer and test valid theories of human behaviour Collate and collect valid and reliable data Develop and use typologies for humans and organisations Help select and populate parameters in models Help develop rules of behaviour Offer a different mindset Develop and test new hypotheses Ask different questions Introduce additional techniques

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18 18 Nudge Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, 2008, Yale University Press, New Haven Core ideas Design can nudge peoples behaviour, in part because busy people in a complex world adopt rules of thumb to get by Social norms and expectations matter

19 19 Examples Stripes on the road that get closer together to persuade drivers to slow down Ceramic fly in the bowl to help men aim better Wattson (smart meter)

20 20 Business School Centre for Organisational Strategy, Learning And Change

21 21 Nuances Drinking – Montana –Most students (81%) have < 5 alcoholic drinks a week –Most Montana teens (70%) are tobacco free –Most of us exaggerate problems because of availability bias (e.g., use of knives) –Aiming for accurate perceptions Tax compliance -- Minnesota –Told taxes went to good works –Risk of punishment –How to get help –> 90% already complied in full

22 22 Energy use in California (c. 300 households) Informed of actual energy use + average use The above average reduced The below average increased (boomerang effect) Then given a non-verbal signal (emoticon) Above average reduced even more Below average stayed low


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