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A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 11 The X Window System.

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1 A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 11 The X Window System

2 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 2 Objectives Describe the X Window System and its client/server model Understand the role of the Window Manager Understand desktops such as GNOME and KDE Start the X Window System

3 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 3 Objectives (continued) Interact with the X Window System and use its components Use Nautilus and Konqueror for file management Run an application Configure a desktop Shut down a system from the desktop

4 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 4 What is the X Window System? X Window System: GUI that runs on Linux and many UNIX operating systems –Two popular desktops: GNOME KDE –Originally developed at MIT Currently in its eleventh version: X11 Current release is R7.2.0 (X11R7) –XFree86: free version of X11 that was ported from non-PC-based UNIX computers to run on PCs Compatible with Linux

5 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 5

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7 7 X Window Clients and Servers Use X Window System to run programs stored: –On your local computer –Over a network X Window System uses a client/server model: –X server: underlying desktop system from which you run a program –X client: system that hosts and executes the program X server approaches for Windows-based PCs: –X-Win32, X-Win32 Flash, and Exceed

8 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 8 Using Window Managers X Window System is layered and built from components –At top layer is the Window Manager Window Manager: controls how windows appear and how users control them Many Window Managers have been developed –Most of them are available for free

9 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 9

10 10 Using a Desktop Desktop: provides GUI appearance, software applications, and other resources that you use –Works hand-in-hand with a Window Manager –Enables you to create and place icons in your screen’s workspace Is customizable –Most popular UNIX/Linux desktops: GNOME KDE

11 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 11 Using GNOME GNOME: GNU Network Object Model Environment –Product of the GNU Project –Desktop environment that is used along with a Window Manager –Installed by default in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux –Very user-friendly –Very popular –Compatible with X11 –Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

12 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 12 Using KDE KDE is an alternative to GNOME –Can be installed along with GNOME –Is more popular internationally than GNOME –Offers a broader range of drag-and-drop capabilities –Intended to provide UNIX/Linux users with a graphical point-and-click experience –Compatible with X11 –Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

13 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 13 Starting the X Window System startx is intended for a computer or login session that does not automatically boot into X Window

14 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 14 Configuring Linux to Automatically Start the X Window System To change runlevel, modify /etc/inittab –From: id:3:initdefault: –To: id:5:initdefault:

15 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 15 Interacting with the X Window System Using GNOME

16 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 16 Interacting with Windows

17 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 17 More About the Window Menu Button Options of Window Menu button (when clicked): –Minimize (and Maximize/Unmaximize) –On Top –Move –Resize –Close –Always on Visible Workspace/Only on This Workspace –Move to Workspace Right (and Left) –Move to Another Workspace

18 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 18 Interacting with the Panel The Panel in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux appears, by default, at the top of the desktop –Another Panel is at the bottom –Top panel: –Bottom panel: On left side: button to hide all windows On right side: access to the four workspaces

19 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 19 Interacting with the Panel (continued) Applications menu: –Submenus and programs that you can open Places menu has options to: –Open your home folder –Access items on desktop –Open storage devices and file systems on computer –Create a CD/DVD –Access network servers and resources –Perform a fast search for a specific item –Access recently opened documents

20 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 20 Interacting with the Panel (continued) System menu options: –A submenu for setting preferences on the computer –A submenu for administering the computer –An option to obtain help –An option to find out about GNOME –An option to learn more about the OS –An option to lock screen –An option to log off –An option to suspend the computer’s operation –An option to shut down the computer

21 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 21 Using Nautilus Nautilus: GNOME’s file management tool Used to: –View files and folders –Create new folders –Delete and move files and folders –Copy and paste files and folders –Configure permissions –Open a file or start a program –Access the Internet –Set a bookmark (to a file, folder, or Internet location)

22 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 22 Using Nautilus (continued)

23 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 23 Configuring the Desktop You can customize many aspects of the X Window System Examples: –Change background image –Specify screensaver –Configure items on the Panel –Add applets to the Panel –Add a new Panel to desktop

24 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 24 Changing the Background Background: desktop area behind all windows and icons –Is customizable: Can change color Can specify a wallpaper to be used as background –To change background in GNOME: Right-click a blank area in the desktop Select Change Desktop Background

25 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 25 Changing the Screensaver Use screensaver to deter unauthorized use of a server or workstation by requiring a password In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux: –Click System menu –Point to Preferences –Click Screensaver In SUSE: –Click Computer menu –Click Control Center –Click Screensaver

26 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 26 Configuring the Panel GNOME Panel can be configured in several ways: –Add an icon or applet to the Panel –Rearrange placement of icons –Add programs you have written –Move the Panel to another location: Move pointer to a blank area of Panel Drag and drop Panel to another location

27 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 27 Configuring the Panel (continued)

28 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 28 Adding a Menu to the Panel You can add a menu within the Applications or Computer menu directly to the Panel Example: –Put the Office menu on the Panel

29 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 29 Adding a New Panel General steps: –Right-click an open space on an existing Panel –Click New Panel –If you want to change the location of the new Panel, click and drag it to the new location –Right-click the new Panel, click Add to Panel, and select what you want to place on the Panel

30 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 30 Shutting Down from the GNOME Desktop Proper shutdown is important to ensure that all files are closed and to protect file system integrity In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux: –Click System menu –Click Shut Down In SUSE: –Click Computer menu –Click Log Out –Click Shut down

31 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 31 Interacting with the X Window System Using KDE

32 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 32 Interacting with Konqueror

33 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 33 Interacting with Kicker Kicker is similar to the Panel in GNOME Can be customized in several ways: –Relocate it, add/remove applets, add panels, etc.

34 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 34 Configuring the KDE Desktop You can customize the KDE desktop in X Window Examples: –Change the desktop background –Specify a screensaver –Create additional desktops Beyond the four set up by default

35 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 35 Changing the Background in KDE Right-click unused desktop area  Configure Desktop

36 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 36 Configuring the Screensaver KDE offers a huge selection of screensavers Use Configure – KDesktop utility to choose a screensaver –For security reasons, set it up so that it requires a password after it starts Use Screen Saver option to set up your screensaver preferences

37 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 37 Configuring Additional Desktops KDE is set by default to enable four desktops –Accessible through Kicker –Configurable to fewer than four or up to 20 desktops Use the Configure – KDesktop utility Then, click Multiple Desktops in side pane

38 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 38 Shutting Down from the KDE Desktop Proper shutdown of KDE desktop is important –Ensures all of your open program and system files are properly closed and kept intact General steps: –Click the K Menu –Click Log Out –Click End Current Session or Turn Off Computer

39 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 39 OpenOffice.org and Open Source Software OpenOffice.org: suite of office productivity software –Open source software –Included in many UNIX/Linux distributions –Also available for Windows and Mac OS systems –Program elements include: Writer Calc Impress Draw Math Base

40 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 40 Summary X Window System runs on UNIX/Linux systems –Window Manager: layer with which user interacts –Use startx to start the X Window System Modify /etc/inittab to have it start automatically GNOME environment is a popular desktop –The Panel provides access to menus, icons, Workspace Switcher, and other utilities –Nautilus is a graphical application for managing directories/files and for navigating the file system –Desktop background and other elements are customizable

41 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 41 Summary (continued) KDE is another popular desktop –Similar in functionality to GNOME –Major components include: Icons Kicker –Similar to the Panel in GNOME Windows Desktop area on which to work –Konqueror: application for managing files/folders –Desktop background, screensaver, and other features are customizable

42 A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 42 Command Summary


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