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L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy

2 3. Foreign Policy and War

3 Themes 1. Dialectic: great power status thwarts reform, , then mandates reform after debacle in Crimean War 2. Immense cost of war, defense— hardship in peacetime, catastrophe in war 3. Rise of Russophobia in West 4. Defining impact of 1812

4 3. Foreign Policy and War A.Napoleonic Wars, B.Superpower and Isolation, C.Crimean War,

5 3. Foreign Policy and War 1. Overview Peace Anti-Napoleon (Tilset ) Alliance with France 1812 French invasion, debacle Anti-Napoleon

6 JuneNapoleon invades ( thousand) 26 AugBattle of Borodino 14 SeptNapoleon enters Moscow 19 OctNapoleon begins retreat

7 3. Foreign Policy and War A.Napoleonic Wars 1.The Why’s of 1812 Causes? French military defeat? No appeal to serfs? A Russian patriotic war? 4.Congress of Vienna: Polish issue 5. Territorial Expansion

8 Russian Expansion, Georgia 1809Finland 1812 Moldavia (Bessarabia) 1813 Parts of South Caucasus 1815 Congress Poland (“4 th partition”)

9 Alexander I and Napoleon at Tilset (June 1807)

10 War of 1812 Blue: French forces Red: Russian forces

11 1812: Napoleonic Invasion

12 1812: Napoleon at Smolensk

13 Mikhail I. Kutuzov

14 1812 Kutuzov

15 Napoleon Watches the Burning of Moscow

16 1812: Napoleonic Retreat

17 Caricature: “Destruction of World Empire”

18 1812: Repelling the French

19 Napoleon’s Army: From Invasion to Retreat

20 3. Foreign Policy and War B. Isolated Superpower, “Concert of Europe” 2. Superpower myth 3. Economic conflicts 4. Religious issues 5. Balkan Question 6. Diplomatic Isolation

21 3. Foreign Policy and War C. Crimean War 1. Causes and precipitants 2. Military record 3. Domestic ramifications

22 Crimean War

23 Crimean War Photography Lab

24 Crimean War: Sevastopol 1855

25 Crimean War: Nurses

26 3. Foreign Policy and War D. Conclusions 1. Russia as European power 2. External: rise of Russophobia 3. Internal: from samobytnost’ (unique national path) to preobrazovanie ( transformation)

27 4. Economy

28 A.Patterns 1.Agriculture: extensive, but pockets of intensification 2.Industry: stagnation, but pockets of growth and take-off in 1830s 3.Delusion of uniqueness: smug samobytnost’ 4.Emergence of a money economy

29 4. Economy B. Agriculture 1. Data 2. Signs of modernization 3. Negatives: low yields, famine 4. Key problems 5. State: deliberate agrarianization

30 Agricultural Production, Indicator Yield rate Net yield (mln pud) Per capita net yield

31 Agriculture: Non-Black Soil and Black-Soil Areas IndicatorArea Yield ratioNon-Black Soil2.8 Black Soil Per capita yield (pud) Non-Black Soil Black Soil

32 Merino Sheep

33 4. Economy C. Industry 1.Data 2.New industries 3.Stagnation debate 4.Impediments 5.State: industrializers and anti-industrializers

34 Industrial Indicators YearFactoriesWorkers , ,261211, ,000550,000

35 Russian Machinery Imports YearValue (rubles) , ,200, ,000,000

36 Free Hired Labor in Textiles (as Percent of Workforce) YearPercent of workforce

37 First Russian Rail Line: Spb- Tsarskoe Selo, 1837

38 Railway Construction (1860) CountryKilometers of RR Russia1,500 Great Britain15,000 Germany10,000

39 Moscow Stock Market,

40 Admiral N.S. Mordvinov

41 Egor F. Kankrin Minister of Finance

42 4. Economy E. Trade and Commerce 1. Domestic trade 2. Foreign trade 3. Transportation

43 Grain Exports (as percent of total exports) YearsGrain as Percent of exports

44 Conclusion 1. Agriculture: extensification, some intensification 2. Industrial: stagnation, textile take-off, industrialization debate 3. Agrarianization of foreign trade 4. High costs of inadequate infrastructure (institutional, financial, transportation)


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