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L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-11 Part III Pre-reform Russia (2) 3. Foreign Policy & War 4. Economy

2 3. Foreign Policy and War

3 Themes 1. Dialectic: great power status thwarts reform, 1815-53, then mandates reform after debacle in Crimean War 2. Immense cost of war, defense— hardship in peacetime, catastrophe in war 3. Rise of Russophobia in West 4. Defining impact of 1812

4 3. Foreign Policy and War A.Napoleonic Wars, 1801-15 B.Superpower and Isolation, 1815-53 C.Crimean War, 1853-56

5 3. Foreign Policy and War 1. Overview 1801-4 Peace 1805-7 Anti-Napoleon (Tilset 25.6.1807) 1807-11 Alliance with France 1812 French invasion, debacle 1813-5 Anti-Napoleon

6 1812 24 JuneNapoleon invades (300-600 thousand) 26 AugBattle of Borodino 14 SeptNapoleon enters Moscow 19 OctNapoleon begins retreat

7 3. Foreign Policy and War A.Napoleonic Wars 1.The Why’s of 1812 Causes? French military defeat? No appeal to serfs? A Russian patriotic war? 4.Congress of Vienna: Polish issue 5. Territorial Expansion

8 Russian Expansion, 1801-15 1801 Georgia 1809Finland 1812 Moldavia (Bessarabia) 1813 Parts of South Caucasus 1815 Congress Poland (“4 th partition”)

9 Alexander I and Napoleon at Tilset (June 1807)

10 War of 1812 Blue: French forces Red: Russian forces

11 1812: Napoleonic Invasion

12 1812: Napoleon at Smolensk

13 Mikhail I. Kutuzov

14 1812 Kutuzov

15 Napoleon Watches the Burning of Moscow

16 1812: Napoleonic Retreat

17 Caricature: “Destruction of World Empire”

18 1812: Repelling the French

19 Napoleon’s Army: From Invasion to Retreat

20 3. Foreign Policy and War B. Isolated Superpower, 1815-53 1. “Concert of Europe” 2. Superpower myth 3. Economic conflicts 4. Religious issues 5. Balkan Question 6. Diplomatic Isolation

21 3. Foreign Policy and War C. Crimean War 1. Causes and precipitants 2. Military record 3. Domestic ramifications

22 Crimean War

23 Crimean War Photography Lab

24 Crimean War: Sevastopol 1855

25 Crimean War: Nurses

26 3. Foreign Policy and War D. Conclusions 1. Russia as European power 2. External: rise of Russophobia 3. Internal: from samobytnost’ (unique national path) to preobrazovanie ( transformation)

27 4. Economy

28 A.Patterns 1.Agriculture: extensive, but pockets of intensification 2.Industry: stagnation, but pockets of growth and take-off in 1830s 3.Delusion of uniqueness: smug samobytnost’ 4.Emergence of a money economy

29 4. Economy B. Agriculture 1. Data 2. Signs of modernization 3. Negatives: low yields, famine 4. Key problems 5. State: deliberate agrarianization

30 Agricultural Production, 1802-1860 Indicator1802-111841-501851-60 Yield rate3.5 3.3 Net yield (mln pud)696.1817.9805.7 Per capita net yield24.221.918.9

31 Agriculture: Non-Black Soil and Black-Soil Areas IndicatorArea1802-111851-60 Yield ratioNon-Black Soil2.8 Black Soil4.03.5 Per capita yield (pud) Non-Black Soil17.816.7 Black Soil34.626.4

32 Merino Sheep

33 4. Economy C. Industry 1.Data 2.New industries 3.Stagnation debate 4.Impediments 5.State: industrializers and anti-industrializers

34 Industrial Indicators YearFactoriesWorkers 1800240095,000 18255,261211,000 186015,000550,000

35 Russian Machinery Imports 1825-1855 YearValue (rubles) 182542,500 18451,200,000 18553,000,000

36 Free Hired Labor in Textiles (as Percent of Workforce) YearPercent of workforce 176940 179941 182554 186087

37 First Russian Rail Line: Spb- Tsarskoe Selo, 1837

38 Railway Construction (1860) CountryKilometers of RR Russia1,500 Great Britain15,000 Germany10,000

39 Moscow Stock Market, 1835-39

40 Admiral N.S. Mordvinov

41 Egor F. Kankrin Minister of Finance

42 4. Economy E. Trade and Commerce 1. Domestic trade 2. Foreign trade 3. Transportation

43 Grain Exports (as percent of total exports) YearsGrain as Percent of exports 1826-3015.7 1841-4516.4 1846-5031.3 1856-6035.1

44 Conclusion 1. Agriculture: extensification, some intensification 2. Industrial: stagnation, textile take-off, industrialization debate 3. Agrarianization of foreign trade 4. High costs of inadequate infrastructure (institutional, financial, transportation)


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